1921
Volume 81, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001–2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals () (9.8%, = 762) and gray catbirds () (3.2%, = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0106
2009-12-01
2017-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/81/6/0811151.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0106&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Germendia AE, Van Kruiningen HJ, French RA, 2001. The West Nile virus: its recent emergence in North America. Microbes Infect 3: 223–229.
  2. Marfin AA, Petersen LR, Eidson M, Miller J, Hadler J, Farello C, Werner B, Campbell GL, Layton M, Smith P, Bresnitz E, Cartter M, Scaletta J, Obiri G, Bunning M, Craven RC, Roehrig JT, Julian KG, Hinten SR, Gubler DJ, ArboNET Cooperative Surveillance Group, 2001. Widespread West Nile virus activity, eastern United States, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 730–735.
  3. Blackmore CGM, Stark LM, Jeter WC, Oliveri RL, Brooks RG, Conti LA, Wiersma ST, 2003. Surveillance results from the first West Nile virus transmission season in Florida, 2001. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 141–150.
  4. McLean RG, 2002. West Nile virus. A threat to North American avian species. Transaction 67th North American Wildlife Natural Resource Conference 2002, 62–74.
  5. O’Leary DR, Marfin AA, Montgomery SP, Kipp AM, Lehman JA, Biggerstaff BJ, Elko VL, Collins PD, Jones JE, Campbell GL, 2004. The epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4: 61–70.
  6. Reisen W, Lothrop H, Chiles R, Madon M, Cossen C, Woods L, Husted S, Kramer V, Edman J, 2004. West Nile virus in California. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1369–1378.
  7. Hayes N, 2004. Summary of West Nile virus activity, United States 2003. Fifth National Conference on West Nile Virus in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/conf/index.htm. Accessed May 29, 2008.
  8. Drebot MA, Lindsay LR, Barker IK, Buck PA, Fearon M, Hunter F, Sockett P, Artsob H, 2003. West Nile virus surveillance and diagnostics: a Canadian perspective. Can J Infect Dis 14: 105–114.
  9. Dupuis AP II, Marra PP, Kramer LD, 2003. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus transmission, Jamaica, West Indies. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 860–863.
  10. Farfan-Ale JA, Blitvich BJ, Lorono-Pino MA, Marlenee NL, Rosado-Paredes EP, Garcia-Rejon JE, Flores-Flores LF, Chulim-Perera L, Lopez-Uribe M, Perez-Mendoza G, Sanchez-Herrera I, Santamaria W, Moo-Huchim J, Gubler DJ, Cropp BC, Calisher CH, Beaty BJ, 2004. Longitudinal studies of West Nile virus infection in avians, Yucatan State, Mexico. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4: 3–14.
  11. Komar N, 2003. West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. Adv Virus Res 61: 185–234.
  12. McLean RG, Ubico SR, Docherty DE, Hansen WR, Sileo L, McNamara TS, 2001. West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951: 54–57.
  13. LaDeau SA, Kilpatrick AM, Marra PP, 2007. West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature 447: 710–714.
  14. Peterson AT, Vieglais DA, Andreasen JK, 2003. Migratory birds modeled as critical transport agents for West Nile virus in North America. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3: 27–37.
  15. Reed KD, Meece JK, Henkel JS, Shukla SK, 2003. Birds, migration, and emerging zoonoses: West Nile virus, lyme disease, influenza A, and enteropathogens. Clin Med Res 1: 5–12.
  16. Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubalek Z, 2000. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis 6: 319–328.
  17. Komar N, Burns J, Dean C, Panella NA, Dusza S, Cherry B, 2001. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1: 191–196.
  18. Komar O, Robbins MB, Klenk K, Blitvich BJ, Marlenee NL, Burkhalter KL, Gubler DJ, Gonzalvez G, Pena CJ, Peterson AT, Komar N, 2003. West Nile virus transmission in resident birds, Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 1299–1302.
  19. Malkinson M, Banet C, Weisman Y, Pokamunski S, King R, Drouet M-T, Deubel V, 2002. Introduction of West Nile virus in the middle east by migrating white storks. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 392–397.
  20. Pyle P, 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I. Bolinas, CA: Slate Creek Press.
  21. Ebel GD, Carricaburu J, Young D, Bernard KA, Kramer LD, 2004. Genetic and phenotypic variation of West Nile virus in New York, 2000–2003. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 493–500.
  22. Ebel GD, Dupuis AP, Nicholas D, Young D, Maffei J, Kramer LD, 2002. Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to West Nile virus in birds. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 979–982.
  23. Lindsey HS, Calisher CH, Matthews JH, 1976. Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. J Clin Microbiol 4: 503–510.
  24. Systat, 2007. SYSTAT 12 Statistics – I. San Jose, CA: SYSTAT Software, Inc.
  25. Jennelle CS, Cooch EG, Conroy MJ, Senar JC, 2007. State-specific detection probabilities and disease prevalence. Ecol Appl 17: 154–167.
  26. Senar JC, Conroy MJ, 2004. Multi-state analysis of the impacts of avian pox on a population of Serins (Serinus serinus): the importance of estimating recapture rates. Anim Biodivers Conserv 27: 133–146.
  27. Komar N, Panella NA, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Amador M, Edwards E, Owen JC, 2005. Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 1031–1037.
  28. Owen J, Moore F, Panella N, Edwards E, Bru R, Hughes M, Komar N, 2006. Migrating birds as dispersal vehicles for West Nile virus. EcoHealth 3: 79–85.
  29. Molaei G, Andreadis TG, Armstrong PM, Anderson JF, Vossbrinck CR, 2006. Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 468–474.
  30. Molaei G, Andreadis TG, 2006. Identification of avian- and mammalian-derived blood meals in Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and its implication for West Nile virus transmission in Connecticut, USA. J Med Entomol 43: 1088–1093.
  31. Savage HM, Aggarwal D, Apperson CS, Katholi CR, Gordon E, Hassan HK, Anderson M, Charnetzky D, McMillen L, Unnasch EA, Unnasch TR, 2007. Host choice and West Nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Culex pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002–2003. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7: 365–386.
  32. Halkin SL, Linville SU, 1999. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Poole A, ed. The Birds of North America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online. Available at: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/440. Accessed November 24, 2008.
  33. Cimprich DA, Moore FR, 1995. Gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis). Poole A, ed. The Birds of North America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online. Available at: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/167. Accessed November 24, 2008.
  34. Gibbs SEJ, Allison AB, Yabsley MJ, Mead DG, Wilcox BR, Stallknecht DE, 2006. West Nile virus antibodies in avian species of Georgia, USA: 2000–2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6: 57–72.
  35. Tesh RB, Parsons R, Siirin M, Randle Y, Sargent C, Guzman H, Wuithiranyagool T, Higgs S, Vanlandingham DL, Bala A, Haas K, Zerinque B, 2004. Year-round West Nile virus activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1649–1652.
  36. Ringia AM, Blitvich BJ, Koo H-Y, Van de Wyngaerde M, Brawn JD, Novak RJ, 2004. Antibody prevalence of West Nile virus in birds, Illinois, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1120–1124.
  37. Marshall JS, Zuwerink DA, Restifo RA, Grubb TC Jr, 2006. West Nile virus in the permanent-resident bird community of a fragmented Ohio landscape. Ornithol Monogr 60: 79–85.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0106
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0106
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Feb 2009
  • Accepted : 18 Aug 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error