Volume 81, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We assessed the structure and latitudinal selection that might result in sensitivities to critical day-lengths that trigger diapause between populations distributed along North-South and East-West axes in eastern North America. Strong population structure between and existed. Among , a 100-km increase in the latitudinal change resulted in an increased square root of by 0.002. A 100-km increase in the longitudinal change caused an increased square root of by 0.035. A lack of latitudinal influence on the structure between populations suggests a uniform signal using the 12 microsatellite markers, which might increase the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission toward northern areas because of longer breeding season, extend host-seeking period, and larger population size. Northern may have undergone additional generations before diapause is triggered, magnifying population size when WNV amplification is peaking.


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Supplementary table 1

Supplementary table 2

  • Received : 18 Nov 2008
  • Accepted : 15 Jul 2009

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