1921
Volume 81, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in Panama. This study describes the clinical characteristics and the molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Panama over a 5-year period (2004–2008). Additionally, we applied a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)–based assay to identify species in clinical isolates, skin scrapings, and sandflies specimens. Whereas 60.3% of cases were detected with conventional parasitologic techniques (smear or culture), the PCR detected 72% positive patients. Our clinical-epidemiologic data corroborate the high incidence of () and provide evidence of peridomestic and/or domestic transmission. Mucosal involvement was observed in 4.2% of the patients. The overall natural infection rate with in 103 pools of sandflies was 0.46%. and were the prevalent species incriminated as vectors at the capture sites in central Panama. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the current epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Panama.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.08-0265
2009-10-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/81/4/0810565.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.08-0265&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Desjeux P, 2004. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27: 305–318.
  2. Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, Brooker S, 2007. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 581–596.
  3. Vásquez A, Paz H, Alvar J, Perez D, Hernandez C, 1998. Informe Final: Estudios Sobre la Epidemiología de la Leishmaniasis en la parte Occidental de la República de Panamá. Panamá: Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudio de la Salud, MINSA.
  4. Chaves LF, Cohen JM, Pascual M, Wilson ML, 2008. Social exclusion modifies climate and deforestation impacts on a vector-borne disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e176.
  5. Vanloubbeeck Y, Jones DE, 2004. The immunology of Leishmania infection and the implications for vaccine development. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1026: 267–272.
  6. de Moura TR, Oliveira F, Novais FO, Miranda JC, Clarêncio J, Follador I, Carvalho EM, Valenzuela JG, Barral-Netto M, Barral A, Brodskyn C, de Oliveira CI, 2007. Enhanced Leishmania braziliensis infection following pre-exposure to sandfly saliva. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1: e84.
  7. Christensen HA, Herrer A, Telford SR Jr, 1972. Enzootic cutaneous leishmaniasis in eastern Panama. II. Entomological investigations. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 66: 55–66.
  8. Christensen HA, Fairchild GB, Herrer A, Johnson CM, Young DG, de Vásquez AM, 1983. The ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Panama. J Med Entomol 20: 463–484.
  9. Christensen HA, de Vasquez AM, Petersen JL, 1999. Short report: epidemiologic studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in eastern Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 54–57.
  10. Takafuji ET, Hendricks LD, Daubek JL, McNeil KM, Scagliola HM, Diggs CL, 1980. Cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with jungle training. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 516–520.
  11. Petersen J, Johnson CM, de Vásquez AM, Sáenz R, 1987. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis in Panama. Rev Med Panama 12: 158–164.
  12. de Vasquez AM, Saenz RE, Petersen JL, Christensen HA, Johnson CM, 1990. Leishmania mexicana complex: human infections in the Republic of Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 619–622.
  13. Kreutzer RD, Corredor A, Grimaldi G Jr, Grogl M, Rowton ED, Young DG, Morales A, McMahon-Pratt D, Guzman H, Tesh RB, 1991. Characterization of Leishmania colombiensis sp. n (Kinetoplastida:Trypanosomatidae), a new parasite infecting humans, animals, and phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia and Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 662–675.
  14. Herrer A, 1971. Leishmania hertigi sp. n., from the tropical porcupine, Coendou rothschildi. J Parasitol 57: 626–629.
  15. Herrer A, Telford SR Jr, Christensen HA, 1971. Enzootic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Eastern Panama. I. Investigation of the infection among forest mammals. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 65: 349–358.
  16. Herrer A, Christensen HA, Beumer RJ, 1973. Reservoir hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Panamanian forest mammals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22: 585–591.
  17. Herrer A, Christensen HA, 1975. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Parasitology 71: 87–92.
  18. Herrer A, Christensen HA, 1980. Leishmania braziliensis in the Panamanian two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 1196–1200.
  19. Christensen HA, Herrer A, 1973. Attractiveness of sentinel animals to vectors of leishmaniasis in Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22: 578–584.
  20. Morales I, y Araúz E, 1998. Determinación de Phlephotominae: Lutzomyia spp. (Díptera: Psychodidae) en el Parque Nacional Altos de Campana. Tesis de Licenciatura en Biología con especialización en Zoología. Panamá: Universidad de Panamá.
  21. Romero LI, Paz HM, Ortega-Barría E, Bayard V, Hochberg LP, Collins KM, Chan AS, Ryan JR, 2004. Evaluation of serological assays based on a novel excreted antigen preparation for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama. J Microbiol Methods 57: 391–397.
  22. Chaniotis BN, 1974. Use of external characters for rapid identification of phlebotomine sandflies in vector studies. J Med Entomol 11: 501.
  23. Belli A, Rodriguez B, Aviles H, Harris E, 1998. Simplified polymerase chain reaction detection of new world Leishmania in clinical specimens of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 102–109.
  24. de Bruijn MH, Barker DC, 1992. Diagnosis of New World leishmaniasis: specific detection of species of the Leishmania braziliensis complex by amplification of kinetoplast DNA. Acta Trop 52: 45–58.
  25. Vergel C, Walker J, Saravia NG, 2005. Amplification of human DNA by primers targeted to Leishmania kinetoplast DNA and post-genome considerations in the detection of parasites by a polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 423–429.
  26. Bhattacharyya R, Das K, Sen S, Roy S, Majumder HK, 1996. Development of a genus specific primer set for detection of Leishmania parasites by polymerase chain reaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett 135: 195–200.
  27. Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), 2007. Salud en las Américas 2007. Publicación Científica y Técnica No. 622. Vol. II (Países). Washington, DC: OPS.
  28. Desjeux P, 2001. The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95: 239–243.
  29. Garcia AL, Tellez T, Parrado R, Rojas E, Bermudez H, Dujardin JC, 2007. Epidemiological monitoring of American tegumentary leishmaniasis: molecular characterization of a peridomestic transmission cycle in the Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 1208–1213.
  30. Oliveira CC, Lacerda HG, Martins DR, Barbosa JD, Monteiro GR, Queiroz JW, Sousa JM, Ximenes MF, Jeronimo SM, 2004. Changing epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil: a disease of the urban-rural interface. Acta Trop 90: 155–162.
  31. de Lima Barros MB, Schubach A, Francesconi-do-Valle AC, Gutierrez-Galhardo MC, Schubach TM, Conceição-Silva F, de Matos Salgueiro M, Mouta-Confort E, Reis RS, de Fátima Madeira M, Cuzzi T, Quintella LP, da Silva Passos JP, Conceição MJ, de Almeida Marzochi MC, 2005. Positive Montenegro skin test among patients with sporotrichosis in Rio De Janeiro. Acta Trop 93: 41–47.
  32. Fagundes A, Marzochi MC, Perez M, Schubach A, Ferreira A, Silva JP, Schubach T, Marzochi KB, 2007. Skin reactivity to thimerosal and phenol-preserved Montenegro antigen in Brazil. Acta Trop 101: 25–30.
  33. Rodríguez-Barraquer I, Góngora R, Prager M, Pacheco R, Montero LM, Navas A, Ferro C, Miranda MC, Saravia NG, 2008. Etiologic agent of an epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tolima, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 276–282.
  34. Delgado O, Cupolillo E, Bonfante-Garrido R, Silva S, Belfort E, Grimaldi Júnior G, Momen H, 1997. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela caused by infection with a new hybrid between Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 92: 581–582.
  35. Nolder D, Roncal N, Davies CR, Llanos-Cuentas A, Miles MA, 2007. Multiple hybrid genotypes of Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 573–578.
  36. Rotureau B, Ravel C, Nacher M, Couppié P, Curtet I, Dedet JP, Carme B, 2006. Molecular epidemiology of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in French Guiana. J Clin Microbiol 44: 468–473.
  37. Rotureau B, Joubert M, Clyti E, Djossou F, Carme B, 2006. Leishmaniasis among gold miners, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 1169–1170.
  38. Cardenas R, Sandoval CM, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Vivas P, 2008. Zoonoses and climate variability. Ann NY Acad Sci 1149: 326–330.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.08-0265
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.08-0265
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 May 2008
  • Accepted : 06 Jul 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error