Volume 79, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Japanese encephalitis (JE) results in significant mortality and disability in children in Asia. In Indonesia, despite recognition of JE virus transmission, reports of human disease have been few and from limited geographic areas. Hospital-based surveillance for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE in children 15 years of age and under was undertaken in 15 hospitals in six provinces from 2005 to 2006. High- and low-risk provinces in geographically dispersed areas were included. Health center-based surveillance also was undertaken in one province. Eighty-two JE cases were confirmed among 1,496 AES cases detected. JE cases were confirmed in all provinces, but the proportion varied between 18% and 2% among provinces of different risk levels. Children younger than 10 years of age represented 95% of JE cases, and 47% of all cases either died or were disabled. The study shows JE is an endemic human disease across Indonesia. Immunization strategies are being considered.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Tsai TF, 2000. New initiatives for the control of Japanese encephalitis by vaccination: minutes of a WHO/CVI meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 13–15 October 1998. Vaccine 18 (Suppl 2): 1–25. [Google Scholar]
  2. Halstead SB, Jacobson J, 2003. Japanese encephalitis. Adv Virus Res 61 : 103–138. [Google Scholar]
  3. Hotta S, Aoki H, Samoto S, Yasui T, Kawabe M, 1970. Virologic-epidemiological studies on Indonesia. II. Measurement of anti-arbovirus antibodies in sera from residents of Lombok, South Sumatera and West Java, in comparison with results concerning sera from residents of Japanese main islands. Kobe J Med Sci 16 : 215–234. [Google Scholar]
  4. Hotta S, Aoki H, Samoto S, Yasui T, Noerjasin B, 1970. Virologic-epidemiological studies on Indonesia. III. HI antibodies against selected arboviruses (groups A and B) in human and animal sera collected in Surabaja, East Java, in 1968. Kobe J Med Sci 16 : 235–250. [Google Scholar]
  5. Mackenzie JS, Johansen CA, Ritchie SA, van den Hurk AF, Hall RA, 2002. Japanese encephalitis as an emerging virus: the emergence and spread of Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267 : 49–73. [Google Scholar]
  6. Van Peenen PFD, Irsiana R, Saroso JS, Joseph SW, Shope RE, Joseph PL, 1974. First isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from Java. Mil Med 139 : 821–823. [Google Scholar]
  7. Van Peenen PFD, Joseph PL, Atmosoedjono S, Irsiana R, Saroso JS, 1975. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes near Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. J Med Entomol 12 : 573–574. [Google Scholar]
  8. Tan R, Nalim S, Suwasono H, Jennings JB, 1993. Japanese encephalitis virus isolated from seven species of mosquitoes collected at Semarang Regency, Central Java. Bul Penelit Kesehatan (Health Studies in Indonesia) 21 : 1–5. [Google Scholar]
  9. Olson JG, Ksiazek TG, Lee VH, Tan R, Shope RE, 1985. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from Anopheles annularis and Anopheles vagus in Lombok, Indonesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79 : 845–847. [Google Scholar]
  10. Van Peenen PFD, Joseph PL, Atmosoedjono S, Irsiana R, Saroso JS, 1975. Japanese encephalitis virus from pigs and mosquitoes in Jakarta, Indonesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 69 : 447–479. [Google Scholar]
  11. Olson JG, Ksiazek TG, Tan R, Atmosoedjono S, Lee VH, Converse JD, 1985. Correlation of population indices of female Culex tritaeniorhynchus with Japanese encephalitis viral activity in Kapuk, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 16 : 337–342. [Google Scholar]
  12. Kanamitsu M, Taniguchi K, Urasawa S, Ogata T, Wada Y, Wada Y, Saroso JS, 1979. Geographic distribution of arbovirus antibodies in indigenous human populations in the Indo-Australian archipelago. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28 : 351–363. [Google Scholar]
  13. Lubis I, 1990. Masalah Penyakit Japanese encephalitis di Indonesia. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran 61 : 24–27. [Google Scholar]
  14. Olson JG, Ksiazek TG, Gubler DJ, Lubis SI, Simanjuntak G, Lee VH, Nalim S, Juslis K, See R, 1983. A survey for arboviral antibodies in sera of humans and animals in Lombok, Republic of Indonesia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 77 : 131–137. [Google Scholar]
  15. Spicer PE, Phillips D, Pike A, Johansen C, Melrose W, Hall RA, 1999. Antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in human sera collected from Irian Jaya. Follow-up of a previously reported case of Japanese encephalitis in that region. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 : 511–514. [Google Scholar]
  16. Widjaja S, Soekotjo W, Hartati S, Jennings GB, Corwin AL, 1995. Prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralizing antibodies to arboviruses in horses of Java. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26 : 109–113. [Google Scholar]
  17. Kho LK, Wulur H, Rumalean L, Thaib S, 1971. Japanese B encephalitis di Djakarta. Madjalah Kedokt Indones 21 : 435–448. [Google Scholar]
  18. Lubis I, Suharyono W, 1983. Penyakit Japanese encephalitis (JE) pada anak-anak di dua rumah sakit di Jakarta dalam tahun 1981. Bull Penelit Kesehatan (Health Studies in Indonesia) 11 : 18–22. [Google Scholar]
  19. Spicer PE, 1997. Japanese encephalitis in Western Irian Jaya. J Travel Med 4 : 146–147. [Google Scholar]
  20. Buhl MR, Black FT, Andersen PL, Laursen A, 1996. Fatal Japanese encephalitis in a Danish tourist visiting Bali for 12 days. Scand J Infect Dis 28 : 189. [Google Scholar]
  21. Macdonald WB, Tink AR, Ouvrier RA, Menser MA, de Silva LM, Naim H, Hawkes RA, 1989. Japanese encephalitis after a two-week holiday in Bali. Med J Aust 150 : 334–339. [Google Scholar]
  22. Wittesjo B, Eitrem R, Niklasson B, Vene S, Mangiafico JA, 1995. Japanese encephalitis after a 10-day holiday in Bali. Lancet 345 : 856–857. [Google Scholar]
  23. Smith D, 1994. Japanese encephalitis case in Western Australia. Commun Dis Intell 18 : 149. [Google Scholar]
  24. Kari K, Liu W, Gautama K, Mammen MP, Clemens JD, Nisalak A, Subrata K, Kim HK, Xu ZY, 2006. A hospital-based surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in Bali, Indonesia. BMC Med 4 : 8. [Google Scholar]
  25. Soedarmo SP, Simanjuntak GM, Suroso T, 1997. Eastern movement of Japanese encephalitis: possible mechanism. Kay B, Brown M, Aaskov J, eds. Arbovirus Research in Australia. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology 285–290.
  26. Wuryadi S, Suroso T, 1989. Japanese encephalitis in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 20 : 575–580. [Google Scholar]
  27. Sumarmo, Wuryadi S, Suroso T, 1995. Japanese encephalitis in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26 (Suppl 3): 24–27. [Google Scholar]
  28. Endy TP, Nisalak A, 2002. Japanese encephalitis virus: ecology and epidemiology. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267 : 11–48. [Google Scholar]
  29. World Health Organization, 2006. WHO-Recommended Standards for Surveillance of Selected Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  30. Solomon T, Kneen R, Dung NM, Khanh VC, Thuy TTN, Ha DQ, Day NP, Nisalak A, Vaughn DW, White NJ, 1998. Poliomyelitis-like illness due to Japanese encephalitis virus. Lancet 351 : 1094–1097. [Google Scholar]
  31. Chung CC, Lee SSJ, Chen YS, Tsai HC, Wann SR, Kao CH, Liu YC, 2007. Acute flaccid paralysis as an unusual presenting symptom of Japanese encephalitis: a case report and review of the literature. Infection 35 : 30–32. [Google Scholar]
  32. Cardosa MJ, Wang SM, Sum MSH, Tio PH, 2002. Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. BMC Microbiol 2 : 9. [Google Scholar]
  33. Wong SC, Ooi MH, Abdullah AR, Wong SY, Krishnan S, Tio PH, Pek PC, Lai BF, Mohan A, Muhi J, Kiyu A, Arif MT, Cardosa MJ, 2008. A decade of Japanese encephalitis surveillance in Sarawak, Malaysia: 1997–2006. Trop Med Int Health 13 : 52–55. [Google Scholar]
  34. Chanama S, Sukprasert W, Sangasang A, Anuegoonpipat A, Sankitporn S, Kurane I, Anantapreecha S, 2005. Detection of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus-specific IgM in cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from JE patients. Jpn J Infect Dis 58 : 294–296. [Google Scholar]
  35. Solomon T, Thao LTT, Dung NM, Kneen R, Hung NT, Nisalak A, Vaughn DW, Farrar J, Hien TT, White NJ, Cardosa MJ, 1998. Rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis by using an immunoglobulin M dot enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 36 : 2030–2033. [Google Scholar]
  36. Solomon T, Thao TT, Lewthwaite P, Ooi MH, Kneen R, Dung NM, White N, 2008. A cohort study to assess the new WHO Japanese encephalitis surveillance standards. Bull World Health Organ 86 : 178–186. [Google Scholar]
  37. Rosen L, 1986. The natural history of Japanese encephalitis virus. Annu Rev Microbiol 40 : 395–414. [Google Scholar]
  38. Buescher EL, Scherer WF, 1959. Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. IX. Epidemiologic correlations and conclusions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8 : 719–722. [Google Scholar]
  39. Simpson TW, Meiklejohn G, 1947. Sequelae of Japanese B encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27 : 727–731. [Google Scholar]
  40. Kumar R, Mathur A, Singh KB, Sitholey P, Prasad M, Shukla R, Agarwal SP, Arockiasamy J, 1993. Clinical sequelae of Japanese encephalitis in children. Indian J Med Res 97 : 9–13. [Google Scholar]
  41. Ding D, Hong Z, Zhao SJ, Clemens JD, Zhou B, Wang B, Huang MS, Zeng J, Guo QH, Liu W, Tao FB, Xu ZY, 2007. Long-term disability from acute childhood Japanese encephalitis in Shanghai, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77 : 528–533. [Google Scholar]
  42. Kneen R, Solomon T, Appleton R, 2002. The role of lumbar puncture in suspected CNS infection-a disappearing skill? Arch Dis Child 87 : 181–183. [Google Scholar]
  43. World Health Organization, 2006. Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 81 : 331–340. [Google Scholar]
  44. Beasley DWC, Lewthwaite P, Solomon T, 2008. Current use and development of vaccines for Japanese encephalitis. Expert Opin Biol Ther 8 : 95–106. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 28 Jun 2008
  • Accepted : 31 Aug 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error