Volume 79, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A molecular PCR study using DNA from 21 hydatid cysts was performed to determine which strain type is responsible for human infection in Peru. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene was amplified in 20 out of 21 samples, revealing that all but 1 sample (19/20, 95%) belonged to the common sheep strain (G1). The remaining samples belonged to the camel strain (G6). The G1 genotype was most frequently found in human cases of cystic hydatid disease (CHD) in Peru. Local control measures should focus primarily on decreasing dog and sheep infection rather than intermediate reservoirs.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Eckert J, Thompson RC, 1997. Intraspecific variation of Echinococcus granulosus and related species with emphasis on their infectivity to humans. Acta Trop 64 : 19–34. [Google Scholar]
  2. Khuroo MS, 2002. Hydatid disease: current status and recent advances. Ann Saudi Med 22 : 56–64. [Google Scholar]
  3. Xiao N, Qiu J, Nakao M, Li T, Yang W, Chen X, Schantz PM, Craig PS, Ito A, 2006. Echinococcus shiquicus, a new species from the Qinghai–Tibet plateau region of China: discovery and epidemiological implications. Parasitol Int 55 (Suppl): S233–S236. [Google Scholar]
  4. McManus DP, Zhang W, Li J, Bartley PB, 2003. Echinococcosis. Lancet 362 : 1295–1304. [Google Scholar]
  5. Moro PL, Gilman RH, Verastegui M, Bern C, Silva B, Bonilla JJ, 1999. Human hydatidosis in the central Andes of Peru: evolution of the disease over 3 years. Clin Infect Dis 29 : 807–812. [Google Scholar]
  6. Moro PL, McDonald J, Gilman RH, Silva B, Verastegui M, Malqui V, Lescano G, Falcon N, Montes G, Bazalar H, 1997. Epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus infection in the central Peruvian Andes. Bull World Health Organ 75 : 553–561. [Google Scholar]
  7. Moro PL, Schantz PM, 2006. Echinococcosis: historical landmarks and progress in research and control. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100 : 703–714. [Google Scholar]
  8. Daniel Mwambete K, Ponce-Gordo F, Cuesta-Bandera C, 2004. Genetic identification and host range of the Spanish strains of Echinococcus granulosus. Acta Trop 91 : 87–93. [Google Scholar]
  9. McManus DP, Rishi AK, 1989. Genetic heterogeneity within Echinococcus granulosus: isolates from different hosts and geographical areas characterized with DNA probes. Parasitology 99 : 17–29. [Google Scholar]
  10. McManus DP, Thompson RC, 2003. Molecular epidemiology of cystic echinococcosis. Parasitology 127 (Suppl): S37–S51. [Google Scholar]
  11. Sadjjadi SM, 2006. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Parasitol Int 55 (Suppl): S197–S202. [Google Scholar]
  12. Zhang LH, Joshi DD, McManus DP, 2000. Three genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus identified in Nepal using mitochondrial DNA markers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 258–260. [Google Scholar]
  13. Guarnera EA, Parra A, Kamenetzky L, Garcia G, Gutierrez A, 2004. Cystic echinococcosis in Argentina: evolution of meta-cestode and clinical expression in various Echinococcus granulosus strains. Acta Trop 92 : 153–159. [Google Scholar]
  14. Haag KL, Ayala FJ, Kamenetzky L, Gutierrez AM, Rosenzvit M, 2004. Livestock trade history, geography, and parasite strains: the mitochondrial genetic structure of Echinococcus granulosus in Argentina. J Parasitol 90 : 234–239. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kamenetzky L, Gutierrez AM, Canova SG, Haag KL, Guarnera EA, Parra A, Garcia GE, Rosenzvit MC, 2002. Several strains of Echinococcus granulosus infect livestock and humans in Argentina. Infect Genet Evol 2 : 129–136. [Google Scholar]
  16. Rosenzvit MC, Zhang LH, Kamenetzky L, Canova SG, Guarnera EA, McManus DP, 1999. Genetic variation and epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus in Argentina. Parasitology 118 : 523–530. [Google Scholar]
  17. Cruz-Reyes A, Constantine CC, Boxell AC, Hobbs RP, Thompson RC, 2007. Echinococcus granulosus from Mexican pigs is the same strain as that in Polish pigs. J Helminthol 81 : 287–292. [Google Scholar]
  18. Bartholomei-Santos ML, Heinzelmann LS, Oliveira RP, Chemale G, Gutierrez AM, Kamenetzky L, Haag KL, Zaha A, 2003. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites from the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitology 126 : 599–605. [Google Scholar]
  19. Cabrera M, Canova S, Rosenzvit M, Guarnera E, 2002. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 44 : 29–34. [Google Scholar]
  20. da Silva CM, Ferreira HB, Picon M, Gorfinkiel N, Ehrlich R, Zaha A, 1993. Molecular cloning and characterization of actin genes from Echinococcus granulosus. Mol Biochem Parasitol 60 : 209–219. [Google Scholar]
  21. Abbasi I, Branzburg A, Campos-Ponce M, Abdel Hafez SK, Raoul F, Craig PS, Hamburger J, 2003. Coprodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by amplification of a newly identified repeated DNA sequence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 : 324–330. [Google Scholar]
  22. Bart JM, Bardonnet K, Elfegoun MC, Dumon H, Dia L, Vuitton DA, Piarroux R, 2004. Echinococcus granulosus strain typing in North Africa: comparison of eight nuclear and mitochondrial DNA fragments. Parasitology 128 : 229–234. [Google Scholar]
  23. Thompson RC, Lymbery AJ, 1990. Echinococcus: biology and strain variation. Int J Parasitol 20 : 457–470. [Google Scholar]
  24. Scott JC, Stefaniak J, Pawlowski ZS, McManus DP, 1997. Molecular genetic analysis of human cystic hydatid cases from Poland: identification of a new genotypic group (G9) of Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitology 114 : 37–43. [Google Scholar]
  25. Turcekova L, Snabel V, D’Amelio S, Busi M, Dubinsky P, 2003. Morphological and genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in the Slovak Republic. Acta Trop 85 : 223–229. [Google Scholar]
  26. Bowles J, McManus DP, 1993. Molecular variation in Echinococcus. Acta Trop 53 : 291–305. [Google Scholar]
  27. Eckert J, Thompson RC, 1988. Echinococcus strains in Europe: a review. Trop Med Parasitol 39 : 1–8. [Google Scholar]
  28. Kamenetzky L, Canova SG, Guarnera EA, Rosenzvit MC, 2000. Echinococcus granulosus: DNA extraction from germinal layers allows strain determination in fertile and nonfertile hydatid cysts. Exp Parasitol 95 : 122–127. [Google Scholar]
  29. Thompson RC, Lymbery AJ, 1988. The nature, extent and significance of variation within the genus Echinococcus. Adv Parasitol 27 : 209–258. [Google Scholar]
  30. Thompson RC, Lymbery AJ, 1996. Genetic variability in parasites and host–parasite interactions. Parasitology 112 (Suppl): S7–S22. [Google Scholar]
  31. Thompson RC, Lymbery AJ, Constantine CC, 1995. Variation in Echinococcus: towards a taxonomic revision of the genus. Adv Parasitol 35 : 145–176. [Google Scholar]
  32. Bardonnet K, Piarroux R, Dia L, Schneegans F, Beurdeley A, Godot V, Vuitton DA, 2002. Combined eco-epidemiological and molecular biology approaches to assess Echinococcus granulosus transmission to humans in Mauritania: occurrence of the “camel” strain and human cystic echinococcosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 : 383–386. [Google Scholar]
  33. Zhang LH, Chai JJ, Jiao W, Osman Y, McManus DP, 1998. Mitochondrial genomic markers confirm the presence of the camel strain (G6 genotype) of Echinococcus granulosus in north-western China. Parasitology 116 : 29–33. [Google Scholar]
  34. Bowles J, Blair D, McManus DP, 1992. Genetic variants within the genus Echinococcus identified by mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Mol Biochem Parasitol 54 : 165–173. [Google Scholar]
  35. Bowles J, Blair D, McManus DP, 1994. Molecular genetic characterization of the cervid strain (“northern form”) of Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitology 109 : 215–221. [Google Scholar]
  36. Bowles J, McManus DP, 1993. Rapid discrimination of Echinococcus species and strains using a polymerase chain reaction-based RFLP method. Mol Biochem Parasitol 57 : 231–239. [Google Scholar]
  37. Kedra AH, Swiderski Z, Tkach VV, Dubinsky P, Pawlowski Z, Stefaniak J, Pawlowski J, 1999. Genetic analysis of Echinococcus granulosus from humans and pigs in Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine. A multicenter study. Acta Parasitol 44 : 248–254. [Google Scholar]
  38. Kedra AH, Swiderski Z, Tkach VV, Rocki B, Pawlowski J, Pawlowski Z, 2000. Variability within NADH dehydrogenase sequences of Echinococcus multilocularis. Acta Parasitol 45 : 353–355. [Google Scholar]
  39. Snabel V, D’Amelio S, Mathiopoulos K, Turcekova L, Dubinsky P, 2000. Molecular evidence for the presence of a G7 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus in Slovakia. J Helminthol 74 : 177–181. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 Nov 2007
  • Accepted : 23 Mar 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error