Volume 79, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Visceral leishmaniasis is an understudied parasitic disease responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. We are presently investigating a method of disease prevention termed paratransgenesis. In this approach, symbiotic or commensal bacteria are transformed to produce anti- molecules. The transformed bacteria are delivered back to sand flies to inactivate the parasite within the vector itself. In this study, we identified 28 distinct gut microorganisms from trapped from four visceral leishmaniasis–endemic sites in India. A significant percent of spp., environmental bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. Two non-pathogenic organisms, and were also isolated. Both organisms are also used extensively in industry. Our results indicate that and are possible candidates for use in a model of paratransgenesis to prevent transmission of .


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Thakur CP, Kumar K, 1992. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a neglected aspect of kala-azar control programmes. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 86 : 355–359. [Google Scholar]
  2. Dhiman RC, Raghavendra K, Kumar V, Kesari S, Kishore K, 2003. Susceptibility status of Phlebotomus argentipes to insecticides in districts Vaishaii and Patna (Bihar). J Commun Dis 35 : 49–51. [Google Scholar]
  3. Kishore K, Kumar V, Kesari S, Bhattacharya SK, Das P, 2004. Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes against DDT in endemic districts of North Bihar, India. J Commun Dis 36 : 41–44. [Google Scholar]
  4. Singh R, Das RK, Sharma SK, 2001. Resistance of sandflies to DDT in kala-azar endemic districts of Bihar, India. Bull World Health Organ 79 : 793. [Google Scholar]
  5. Mukhopadhyay AK, Hati AK, Chakraborty S, Saxena NB, 1996. Effect of DDT on Phlebotomus sandflies in kala-azar endemic foci in West Bengal. J Commun Dis 28 : 171–175. [Google Scholar]
  6. Durvasula RV, Gumbs A, Panackal A, Kruglov O, Aksoy S, Merrifield RB, Richards FF, Beard CB, 1997. Prevention of insect-borne disease: an approach using transgenic symbiotic bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94 : 3274–3278. [Google Scholar]
  7. Durvasula RV, Gumbs A, Panackal A, Kruglov O, Taneja J, Kang AS, Cordon-Rosales C, Richards FF, Whitham RG, Beard CB, 1999. Expression of a functional antibody fragment in the gut of Rhodnius prolixus via transgenic bacterial symbiont Rhodococcus rhodnii. Med Vet Entomol 13 : 115–119. [Google Scholar]
  8. Sundaram RK, Hurwitz I, Matthews S, Hoy E, Kurapati S, Crawford C, Sundaram P, Durvasula RV, 2008. Expression of a functional single chain antibody in Corynebacterium pseudo-diphtheriticum. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 27 : 617–622. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bextine B, Lauzon C, Potter S, Lampe D, Miller TA, 2004. Delivery of a genetically marked Alcaligenes sp. to the glassy-winged sharpshooter for use in a paratransgenic control strategy. Curr Microbiol 48 : 327–331. [Google Scholar]
  10. Dillion RJ, El Kordy E, Lane RP, 1996. The prevalence of a microbiota in the digestive tract of Phlebotomus papatasi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90 : 669–673. [Google Scholar]
  11. Rajendran P, Modi GB, 1982. Bacterial flora of sandfly gut (Diptera: Psychodidae). Indian J Public Health 26 : 49–52. [Google Scholar]
  12. Kesari S, Kishore K, Palit A, Kumar V, Roy MS, Sivakumar S, Kar SK, 2000. An entomological field evaluation of larval biology of sandfly in kala-azar endemic focus of Bihar—exploration of larval control tool. J Commun Dis 32 : 284–288. [Google Scholar]
  13. Tanada Y, Kaya HK, 1993. Insect Pathology. San Diego: Academic Press, 12–51.
  14. Husseneder C, Grace JK, 2005. Genetically engineered termite gut bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae) deliver and spread foreign genes in termite colonies. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 68 : 360–367. [Google Scholar]
  15. Chakraborty U, Chakraborty B, Basnet M, 2006. Plant growth promotion and induction of resistance in Camellia sinensis by Bacillus megaterium. J Basic Microbiol 46 : 186–195. [Google Scholar]
  16. Marshall-Jones ZV, Baillon ML, Croft JM, Butterwick RF, 2006. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM13241 as a probiotic in healthy adult cats. Am J Vet Res 67 : 1005–1012. [Google Scholar]
  17. Otero MC, Morelli L, Nader-Macias ME, 2006. Probiotic properties of vaginal lactic acid bacteria to prevent metritis in cattle. Lett Appl Microbiol 43 : 91–97. [Google Scholar]
  18. Braks MA, Anderson RA, Knols BG, 1999. Infochemicals in mosquito host selection: human skin microflora and Plasmodium parasites. Parasitol Today 15 : 409–413. [Google Scholar]
  19. Meijerink J, van Loon JJ, 1999. Sensitivities of antennal olfactory neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to carboxylic acids. J Insect Physiol 45 : 365–373. [Google Scholar]
  20. Anjili C, Langat B, Ngumbi P, Mbati PA, Githure J, Tonui WK, 2006. Effects of anti-Leishmania monoclonal antibodies on the development of Leishmania major in Phlebotomus duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae). East Afr Med J 83 : 72–78. [Google Scholar]
  21. Castro-Pinto DB, Lima EL, Cunha AS, Genestra M, De Leo RM, Monteiro F, Leon LL, 2007. Leishmania amazonensis trypanothione reductase: evaluation of the effect of glutathione analogs on parasite growth, infectivity and enzyme activity. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 22 : 71–75. [Google Scholar]
  22. Dutta A, Ghoshal A, Mandal D, Mondal NB, Banerjee S, Sahu NP, Mandal C, 2007. Racemoside A, an anti-leishmanial, water-soluble, natural steroidal saponin, induces programmed cell death in Leishmania donovani. J Med Microbiol 56 : 1196– 1204. [Google Scholar]
  23. Luque-Ortega JR, van’t Hof W, Veerman EC, Saugar JM, Rivas L, 2008. Human antimicrobial peptide histatin 5 is a cell-penetrating peptide targeting mitochondrial ATP synthesis in Leishmania. FASEB J 22 : 1817–1828. [Google Scholar]
  24. Mangoni ML, Saugar JM, Dellisanti M, Barra D, Simmaco M, Rivas L, 2005. Temporins, small antimicrobial peptides with leishmanicidal activity. J Biol Chem 280 : 984–990. [Google Scholar]
  25. Sarkar A, Sen R, Saha P, Ganguly S, Mandal G, Chatterjee M, 2008. An ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via apoptosis. Parasitol Res 102 : 1249–1255. [Google Scholar]
  26. Sen R, Bandyopadhyay S, Dutta A, Mandal G, Ganguly S, Saha P, Chatterjee M, 2007. Artemisinin triggers induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes. J Med Microbiol 56 : 1213–1218. [Google Scholar]
  27. Volf P, Kiewegova A, Nemec A, 2002. Bacterial colonisation in the gut of Phlebotomus duboseqi (Diptera: Psychodidae): transtadial passage and the role of female diet. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 49 : 73–77. [Google Scholar]
  28. Ozkocaman V, Ozcelik T, Ali R, Ozkalemkas F, Ozkan A, Ozakin C, Akalin H, Ursavas A, Coskun F, Ener B, Tunali A, 2006. Bacillus spp. among hospitalized patients with haematological malignancies: clinical features, epidemics and outcomes. J Hosp Infect 64 : 169–176. [Google Scholar]
  29. Haymore BR, Akers KS, Ferguson TM, 2006. A case of persistent Bacillus pumilis bacteremia associated with cholangitis. J Infect 52 : 154–155. [Google Scholar]
  30. Matsumoto S, Suenaga H, Naito K, Sawazaki M, Hiramatsu T, Agata N, 2000. Management of suspected nosocomial infection: an audit of 19 hospitalized patients with septicemia caused by Bacillus species. Jpn J Infect Dis 53 : 196–202. [Google Scholar]
  31. Oggioni MR, Pozzi G, Valensin PE, Galieni P, Bigazzi C, 1998. Recurrent septicemia in an immunocompromised patient due to probiotic strains of Bacillus subtilis. J Clin Microbiol 36 : 325–326. [Google Scholar]
  32. Richard V, Van der Auwera P, Snoeck R, Daneau D, Meunier F, 1988. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by Bacillus species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 7 : 783–785. [Google Scholar]
  33. Wallet F, Crunelle V, Roussel-Delvallez M, Fruchart A, Saunier P, Courcol RJ, 1996. Bacillus subtilis as a cause of cholangitis in polycystic kidney and liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 91 : 1477–1478. [Google Scholar]
  34. Brazzola P, Zbinden R, Rudin C, Schaad UB, Heininger U, 2000. Brevibacterium casei sepsis in an 18-year-old female with AIDS. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 3513–3514. [Google Scholar]
  35. Cannon JP, Spandoni SL, Pesh-Iman S, Johnson S, 2005. Peri-cardial infection caused by Brevibacterium casei. Clin Microbiol Infect 11 : 164–165. [Google Scholar]
  36. Gruner E, Steigerwalt AG, Hollis DG, Weyant RS, Weaver RE, Moss CW, Daneshvar M, Brown JM, Brenner DJ, 1994. Human infections caused by Brevibacterium casei, formerly CDC groups B-1 and B-3. J Clin Microbiol 32 : 1511–1518. [Google Scholar]
  37. Antoniou S, Dimitriadis A, Polydorou F, Malaka E, 1997. Brevi-bacterium iodinum peritonitis associated with acute urticaria in a CAPD patient. Perit Dial Int 17 : 614–615. [Google Scholar]
  38. Brown JM, Frazier RP, Morey RE, Steigerwalt AG, Pellegrini GJ, Daneshvar MI, Hollis DG, McNeil MM, 2005. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of clinical isolates of CDC coryneform group A-3: proposal of a new species of Cellulomonas, Cellulomonas denverensis sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 43 : 1732– 1737. [Google Scholar]
  39. Gil-Sande E, Brun-Otero M, Campo-Cerecedo F, Esteban E, Aguilar L, Garcia-de-Lomas J, 2006. Etiological misidentification by routine biochemical tests of bacteremia caused by Gordonia terrae infection in the course of an episode of acute cholecystitis. J Clin Microbiol 44 : 2645–2647. [Google Scholar]
  40. Pham AS, De I, Rolston KV, Tarrand JJ, Han XY, 2003. Catheter-related bacteremia caused by the nocardioform actinomycete Gordonia terrae. Clin Infect Dis 36 : 524–527. [Google Scholar]
  41. Zardawi IM, Jones F, Clark DA, Holland J, 2004. Gordonia terrae-induced suppurative granulomatous mastitis following nipple piercing. Pathology 36 : 275–278. [Google Scholar]
  42. Lau SK, Woo PC, Woo GK, Yuen KY, 2002. Catheter-related Microbacterium bacteremia identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 2681–2685. [Google Scholar]
  43. Alvarez Posadilla M, Linares Torres P, Bailador Andres C, Suarez Alvarez P, Olcoz Goni JL, 2006. Bacteriemia caused by Staphylococcus cohnii associated with acute cholecystitis. Med Interna 23 : 51–52. [Google Scholar]
  44. Ene N, Serratrice J, Ben Amri A, Jouve JL, Drancourt M, Weiller PJ, 2008. Prolonged inflammatory syndrome revealing asymptomatic Staphylococcus cohnii infection of spinal fixation material. Joint Bone Spine 75 : 98–99. [Google Scholar]
  45. Yamashita S, Yonemura K, Sugimoto R, Tokunaga M, Uchino M, 2005. Staphylococcus cohnii as a cause of multiple brain abscesses in Weber-Christian disease. J Neurol Sci 238 : 97–100. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 29 May 2008
  • Accepted : 27 Aug 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error