Volume 79, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


infection may cause genital mucosal pathology in women with and without urinary schistosomiasis. This report seeks to explore the long-term effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on the clinical manifestations of infection in the lower genital tract. Prior treatment was reported by 248 (47%) of 527 women. Treatment received before the age of 20 years was significantly associated with the absence of sandy patches and contact bleeding, and this association was independent of current waterbody contact. Treatment in the past five years did not influence the prevalence of gynecologic schistosoma-induced lesions. The study indicates that early treatment may be more efficient for gynecologic morbidity control. Findings warrant an exploration into several chemotherapeutic agents administered at an early age, as well as in adults.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Fenwick A, 2006. Waterborne infectious diseases—could they be consigned to history? Science 313 : 1077–1081.
  2. Renaud G, Devidas A, Develoux M, Lamothe F, Bianchi G, 1989. Prevalence of vaginal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium in an endemic village in Niger. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83 : 797.
  3. Kjetland EF, Poggensee G, Helling-Giese G, Richter J, Sjaastad A, Chitsulo L, Kumwenda N, Gundersen SG, Krantz I, Feldmeier H, 1996. Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi. Acta Trop 62 : 239–255.
  4. Leutscher P, Raharisolo C, Pecarrere JL, Ravaoalimalala VE, Serieye J, Rasendramino M, Vennervald B, Feldmeier H, Esterre P, 1997. Schistosoma haematobium induced lesions in the female genital tract in a village in Madagascar. Acta Trop 66 : 27–33.
  5. Poggensee G, Kiwelu I, Weger V, Goppner D, Diedrich T, Krantz I, Feldmeier H, 2000. Female genital schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract: prevalence and disease-associated morbidity in northern Tanzania. J Infect Dis 181 : 1210–1213.
  6. Kjetland EF, Ndhlovu PD, Mduluza T, Gomo E, Gwanzura L, Mason P, Kurewa EN, Midzi N, Friis H, Gundersen SG, 2005. Simple clinical manifestations of genital Schistosoma haematobium infection in rural Zimbabwean women. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 : 311–319.
  7. Bland KG, Gelfand M, 1970. The effects of schistosomiasis on the cervix uteri in the African female. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 77 : 1127–1131.
  8. Poggensee G, Kiwelu I, Saria M, Richter J, Krantz I, Feldmeier H, 1998. Schistosomiasis of the lower reproductive tract without egg excretion in urine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 782–783.
  9. Kjetland EF, Ndhlovu PD, Gomo E, Mduluza T, Midzi N, Gwanzura L, Mason P, Sandvik L, Friis H, Gundersen SG, 2006. Association between genital schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwean women. AIDS 20 : 593–600.
  10. Bergquist NR, 2002. Schistosomiasis: from risk assessment to control. Trends Parasitol 18 : 309–314.
  11. Kjetland EF, Mduluza T, Ndhlovu PD, Gomo E, Gwanzura L, Midzi N, Mason P, Friis H, Gundersen SG, 2006. Genital schistosomiasis in women—a clinical in vivo 12-month study following treatment with praziquantel. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100 : 740–752.
  12. Richter J, 2003. The impact of chemotherapy on morbidity due to schistosomiasis. Acta Trop 86 : 161–183.
  13. Savioli L, Engels D, Roungou JB, Fenwick A, Endo H, 2004. Schistosomiasis control. Lancet 363 : 658.
  14. Hatz CF, Vennervald BJ, Nkulila T, Vounatsou P, Kombe Y, Mayombana C, Mshinda H, Tanner M, 1998. Evolution of Schistosoma haematobium-related pathology over 24 months after treatment with praziquantel among school children in southeastern Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 775–781.
  15. Engels D, Chitsulo L, Montresor A, Savioli L, 2002. The global epidemiological situation of schistosomiasis and new approaches to control and research. Acta Trop 82 : 139–146.
  16. Colley DG, Secor EW, 2004. Immunoregulation and World Health Assembly resolution 54.19: why does treatment control morbidity? Parasitol Int 53 : 143–150.
  17. Lessing C, 1998. Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines for Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: EDLIZ, NDT-PAC Publishing.
  18. Rhodesian Report on the Public Health, 1951–1963, 1963. Rhodesia: Ministry of Health.
  19. Rhodesia Report of the Secretary of Health 1971–1976, 1976. Rhodesia: Ministry of Health.
  20. Fenwick A, Savioli L, Engels D, Robert Bergquist N, Todd MH, 2003. Drugs for the control of parasitic diseases: current status and development in schistosomiasis. Trends Parasitol 19 : 509–515.
  21. 1981 Rhodesia Report of the Secretary of Health for the Year ended December 31, 1981, 1981. Rhodesia: Ministry of Health.
  22. Moffatt J, 1985. Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines for Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: EDLIZ. NDT-PAC Publishing, 50–51.
  23. Nazerali H, Levy L, 1994. Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines for Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: EDLIZ.
  24. Mason PR, Tswana SA, Jenks P, Priddy CE, 1991. Long-term effects of single-dose metrifonate on the control of urinary schistosomiasis in an endemic area. J Trop Med Hyg 94 : 180–183.
  25. Badawy A, 1962. Schistosomiasis of the cervix. BMJ 5275 : 369–372.
  26. Doehring E, Feldmeier H, Dafalla AA, 1983. Day-to day variation and circadian rhythm of egg excretion in urinary schistosomiasis in the Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 77 : 587–594.
  27. Swart PJ, van der Merwe JV, 1987. Wet-smear diagnosis of genital schistosomiasis. S Afr Med J 72 : 631–632.
  28. Peters PA, El Alamy MA, Warren KS, Mahmod AA, 1980. Quick Kato for field quantification of S. mansoni eggs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29 : 217–219.
  29. Feldmeier H, Poggensee G, Krantz I, 1998. Puberty and age intensity profiles in schistosome infections: another hypothesis. Parasitol Today 14 : 435.
  30. Ndhlovu P, Chandiwana SK, Makura O, 1992. Progress in the control of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe since 1984. Cent Afr J Med 38 : 316–321.
  31. Parker M, Allen T, Hastings J, 2008. Resisting control of neglected tropical diseases: dilemmas in the mass treatment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in north-west Uganda. J Biosoc Sci 40 : 161–181.
  32. Harder A, 2002. Chemotherapeutic approaches to schistosomes: current knowledge and outlook. Parasitol Res 88 : 395–397.
  33. Smith J, Christie J, 1986. The pathobiology of Schistosoma haematobium infection in humans. Hum Pathol 17 : 333–345.
  34. Helling-Giese G, Sjaastad A, Poggensee G, Kjetland EF, Richter J, Chitsulo L, Kumwenda N, Racz P, Roald B, Gundersen SG, Krantz I, Feldmeier H, 1996. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS): relationship between gynecological and histopathological findings. Acta Trop 62 : 257–267.
  35. Friedberg D, Berry A, Schneider J, Fripp PJ, 1991. Schistosomiasis of the female genital tract. S Afr Med J 80 (Suppl 2): 2–15.
  36. Feldmeier H, Krantz I, Poggensee G, 1994. Female genital schistosomiasis as a risk-factor for the transmission of HIV. AIDS 5 : 368–372.
  37. Degremont A, Burki A, Burnier E, Schweizer W, Meudt R, Tanner M, 1985. Value of ultrasonography in investigating morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium infection. Lancet 1 : 662–665.
  38. Giboda M, Loudova J, Shonova O, Bouckova E, Horacek J, Numrich P, Ruppel A, Vitovec J, Lukes S, Noll P, 1992. Efficacy of praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis in a non-endemic country: a follow-up of parasitological, clinical and immunological parameters. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 36 : 346–355.
  39. Patil KP, Ibrahim AI, Shetty SD, el Tahir MI, Anandan N, 1992. Specific investigations in chronic urinary bilharziasis. Urology 40 : 117–119.
  40. Silva IM, Thiengo R, Conceicao MJ, Rey L, Lenzi HL, Pereira Filho E, Ribeiro PC, 2005. Therapeutic failure of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium infection in Brazilians returning from Africa. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 100 : 445–449.
  41. Mainguene C, Clement N, Gabriel S, Loubiere R, Hofman P, 1998. Urogenital schistosomiasis: an unusual discovery on cervical smears from a caucasian female. Acta Cytol 42 : 1045–1046.
  42. Vass ACR, 1992. Bilharzial granuloma of the fallopian tube. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 89 : 867–869.
  43. Leslie TA, Goldsmith PC, Dowd PM, 1993. Vulval schistosomiasis. J R Soc Med 86 : 51.
  44. Landry P, Favrat B, Raeber PA, 1996. Genital schistosomiasis after a missed diagnosis of Katayama syndrome. J Travel Med 3 : 237–238.
  45. Laven JS, Vleugels MP, Dofferhoff AS, Bloembergen P, 1998. Schistosomiasis haematobium as a cause of vulvar hypertrophy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 79 : 213–216.
  46. Rand RJ, Lowe JW, 1998. Schistosomiasis of the uterine cervix. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105 : 1329–1331.
  47. Carey FM, Quah SP, Hedderwick S, Finnegan D, Dinsmore WW, Maw RD, 2001. Genital schistosomiasis. AIDS 12 : 609–611.
  48. Sharma S, Boyle D, Wansbrough-Jones MH, Chiodini PL, Smith JR, 2001. Cervical schistosomiasis. Int J Gynecol Cancer 11 : 491–492.
  49. El-Shoura SM, 1993. Human bilharzial ureters II. Cellular dynamic against deposited eggs. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 68 : 121–124.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 03 Feb 2008
  • Accepted : 30 Mar 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error