1921
Volume 79, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of the venom (BjV) on general metabolic profile and, specifically, on muscle protein metabolism in rats. The crude venom (0.4 mg/kg body weight, IV) was infused in awake rats, and plasma activity of enzymes and metabolites levels were determined after 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours. BjV increased urea, lactate, and activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase after 4 hours. The content of liver glycogen was reduced by BjV. Protein metabolism was evaluated by means of microdialysis technique and in isolated muscles. BjV induced increase in the muscle interstitial-arterial tyrosine concentration difference, indicating a high protein catabolism. The myotoxicity induced by this venom is associated with reduction of protein synthesis and increase in rates of overall proteolysis, which was accompanied by activation of lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome systems without changes in protein levels of cathepsins and ubiquitin-protein conjugates.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.79.771
2008-11-01
2017-11-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/79/5/0790771.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.79.771&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Rosenfeld G, 1971. Symptomology, pathology and treatment of snake bite in South America. Burcherl W, Buckley EE, Deulofeu V, eds. Venomous Animals and Their Venoms. Vol. II. New York: Academic Press, 345–384.
  2. Hoge AR, Romano-Hoge SARWL, 1978. Sinopse das serpentes peçonhentas do Brasil. Second edition. Mem Inst Butantan 42/43 : 373–402.
  3. Camey KU, Velarde DT, Sanchez EF, 2002. Pharmacological characterization and neutralization of the venoms used in the production of Bothropic antivenom in Brazil. Toxicon 40 : 501–509.
  4. Laing GD, Moura-da-Silva AM, 2005. Jararhagin and its multiple effects on homeostasis. Toxicon 45 : 987–996.
  5. Burdmann EA, Woronik V, Prado EBA, Abdulkader RC, Saldanha LB, Barreto OCO, Marcondes M, 1993. Snakebite induced acute renal failure: an experimental model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 : 82–88.
  6. Teixeira CF, Cury Y, Oga S, Jancar S, 1994. Hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops jararaca venom in rats: role of eicosanoids and platelet activating factor (PAF). Toxicon 32 : 419–426.
  7. Chacur M, Picolo G, Gutiérrez JM, Teixeira CF, Cury Y, 2001. Pharmacological modulation of hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops asper (terciopelo) snake venom. Toxicon 39 : 1173–1181.
  8. Petricevich VL, Teixeira CFP, Tambourgi DV, Gutiérrez JM, 2000. Increments in serum cytokine and nitric oxide levels in mice injected with Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Toxicon 38 : 1253–1266.
  9. Mitch WE, 2006. Proteolytic mechanisms, not malnutrition, cause loss of muscle mass in kidney failure. J Ren Nutr 16 : 208–211.
  10. Clark AS, Mitch WE, 1983. Muscle protein turnover and glucose uptake in acutely uremic rats. J Clin Invest 72 : 836–845.
  11. Lecker SH, Goldberg AL, Mitch WE, 2006. Protein degration by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in normal and disease states. J Am Soc Nephrol 17 : 1807–1819.
  12. Costelli P, Reffo P, Penna F, Autelli R, Bonelli G, Baccino FM, 2005. Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in muscle wasting. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37 : 2134–2146.
  13. Ungerstedt U, 1991. Microdialysis—principles and applications for studies in animals and man. J Intern Med 230 : 365–373.
  14. Waalkes TP, Udenfriend SA, 1957. A fluorometric method for stimation of tyrosine in plasma and tissue. J Lab Clin Med 50 : 733–736.
  15. Lönnroth P, Strindberg L, 1995. Validation of the internal reference technique for calibrating microdialysis catheters in situ. Acta Physiol Scand 153 : 375–380.
  16. Pepato MT, Migliorini RH, Goldberg AL, Kettelhut IC, 1996. Role of different proteolytic pathways in degradation of muscle protein from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 271 : E340–E347.
  17. Navegantes LC, Resano NM, Migliorini RH, Kettelhut IC, 1999. Effect of guanethidine-induced adrenergic blockade on the different proteolytic systems in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 277 : E883–E889.
  18. Scharff R, Wool IG, 1966. Effect of diabetes on the concentration of amino acids in plasma and heart muscle of rats. Biochem J 99 : 173–178.
  19. Navegantes LC, Resano NM, Baviera AM, Migliorini RH, Kettelhut IC, 2004. Effect of sympathetic denervation on the rate of protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 286 : E642–E647.
  20. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ, 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193 : 265–275.
  21. Laemmli UK, 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227 : 680–685.
  22. Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J, 1979. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76 : 4350–4354.
  23. Hickner RC, Rosdahl H, Borg L, Ungerstedt U, Jorfeldt L, Henriksson J, 1992. The ethanol technique of monitoring local blood flow changes in rat skeletal muscle: implications for microdialysis. Acta Physiol Scand 146 : 87–97.
  24. Dole VP, Meinertz H, 1960. Microdetermination of long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. J Biol Chem 235 : 2595–2599.
  25. Carroll NV, Longlay RW, Roe JH, 1956. The determination of glycogen in liver and muscle by use of anthrone reagent. J Biol Chem 220 : 583–593.
  26. Folch J, Lees M, Slorn Stanley GH, 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226 : 497–503.
  27. Lira EC, Graça FA, Gonçalves DAP, Zanom NM, Baviera AM, Lönnroth P, Migliorini RH, Kettelhut IC, Navegantes LLC, 2007. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase inhibitors reduce skeletal muscle protein catabolism in septic rats. Shock 27 : 687–694.
  28. Gutierrez A, Anderstam B, Alvestrand A, 1999. Amino acid concentration in the interstitium of human skeletal muscle: a microdialysis study. Eur J Clin Invest 29 : 947–952.
  29. Rezende NA, Amaral CFS, Bambirra EA, Lachatt JJ, Coimbra TM, 1989. Functional and histopathological renal changes induced in rats by Bothrops jararaca venom. Braz J Med Biol Res 22 : 407–416.
  30. Boer-lima P, Gontijo JAR, Cruz-Höfling MA, 1999. Histologic and functional renal alterations caused by Bothrops moojeni snake venom in rats. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 698–706.
  31. Corrêa MM, Sampaio SV, Lopes RA, Mancuso LC, Cunha OAB, Franco JJ, Giglio JR, 1997. Biochemical and histopathological alterations induced in rats by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its major neurotoxin tityustoxin-I. Toxicon 35 : 1053–1067.
  32. Mebs D, Ehrenfeld M, Samejima Y, 1983. Local necrotizing effect of snake venoms on skin and muscle: relationship to serum creatine kinase. Toxicon 21 : 393–404.
  33. Trebien HA, Calixto JB, 1989. Pharmacological evaluation of rat paw oedema induced by Bothrops jararaca venom. Agents Actions 26 : 292–300.
  34. Calil-Elias S, Thattssery E, Martinez AMB, Melo PA, 2002. Effect of perimuscular injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom on plasma creatine kinase levels in mice: influence of dose and volume. Braz J Med Biol Res 35 : 1233–1235.
  35. Gutiérrez JM, Lomonte B, 2003. Efectos locales en el envene-namiento ofídico en América Latina. Costa Cardoso, JL, de Siqueira França FO, Wen FH, Santána Málaque CM, Haddad V, eds. Animais Peçonhentos no Brasil: Biologia, Clínica e Terapêutica dos Acidentes. São Paulo: Sarvier Editora, 310–323.
  36. Gutiérrez JM, Rucavado A, 2000. Snake venom metalloproteinases: their role in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage. Biochimie 82 : 841–850.
  37. Gutiérrez JM, Lomonte B, 1995. Phospholipase myotoxins A2 from Bothrops snake venoms. Toxicon 33 : 1405–1424.
  38. Azevedo-Marques MM, Cupo P, Coimbra TM, Hering SF, Rossi MA, Lavre CJ, 1985. Myonecrosis, myoglobinuria and acute renal failure induced by South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation in Brazil. Toxicon 23 : 631–636.
  39. Melo PA, Suarez-Kurtz G, 1987. Interaction of Bothrops venoms and antivenom on the release of creatine kinase from skeletal muscle. Braz J Med Biol Res 20 : 821–824.
  40. Zamunér SR, Cruz-Höfling MA, Corrado AP, Hyslop S, Rodrigues-Simioni L, 2004. Comparison of the neurotoxic and myotoxic effects of Brazilian Bothrops venoms and their neutralization by commercial antivenom. Toxicon 44 : 259–271.
  41. Miller O, 1993. Bioquímica do sangue: enzimas. Miller O, Gonçalves RR, eds. Laboratório Para o Clínico. Seventh edition. São Paulo: Atheneu, 63–75.
  42. Nathwani RA, Pais S, Reynolds TB, Kaplowitz N, 2005. Serum alanine aminotransferase in skeletal muscle diseases. Hepatology 41 : 380–382.
  43. Assi A, Nasser H, 1999. An in vitro and in vivo study of some biological and biochemical effects of Sistrurus Miliarius Barbouri venom. Toxicology 137 : 81–94.
  44. Chaves F, Gutiérrez JM, Brenes F, 1992. Pathological and biochemical changes induced in mice after intramuscular injection of venom from newborn specimens of the snake Bothrops asper (Terciopelo). Toxicon 30 : 1099–1109.
  45. Rosdhal H, Samuelsson AC, Ungerstedt U, Henriksson J, 1998. Influence of adrenergic agonist on release of amino acids from rat skeletal muscle studied by microdialysis. Acta Physiol Scand 163 : 349–360.
  46. Greiber S, Mitch WE, 1992. Mechanisms for protein catabolism in uremia: acidosis and activation of proteolytic pathways. Miner. Eletrolyte Metab. 18 : 233–236.
  47. Kadowaki M, Kanazawa T, 2003. Amino acid as regulators of proteolysis. J Nutr 133 : 2052S–2056S.
  48. Zhao J, Brault J, Schild A, Cao P, Sandri M, Schiaffino S, Lecker S, Goldberg A, 2007. FoxO3 coordinately activates protein degradation by the autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways in atrophying muscle cells. Cell Metab. 6 : 472–483.
  49. Jagoe RT, Goldberg AL, 2001. What do we really know about the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 4 : 183–190.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.79.771
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.79.771
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 May 2008
  • Accepted : 20 Jul 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error