Volume 79, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We report infection in wild and domestic mammals from three orally acquired Chagas disease outbreak areas in Brazil. Cachoeiro do Arari (Pará) displayed a panzootic scenery (positive mammals in all ecologic strata), and human cases were probably the consequence of their exposure within the sylvatic transmission cycle. In Navegantes (Santa Catarina), spp. was the main reservoir host, given that 93% were infected. In Redenção (Ceará), and were also important for parasite maintenance. TCI was present in the three studied areas. Additionally, Z3 was detected in an armadillo from Pará and TCII in a triatomine from Navegantes. Domestic animals showed a high seroprevalence and should be considered sentinels in surveillance programs. The importance of a reduction in wild mammalian fauna diversity and selection of suitable reservoir hosts are discussed as risk factors for the re-emergence of Chagas disease.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Shofield CJ, Janin J, Salvatella R, 2006. The future of Chagas disease control. Trends Parasitol 22 : 583–588. [Google Scholar]
  2. Dujardin JP, Schofield CJ, Tibayrenc M, 1998. Population structure of Andean Triatoma infestans: allozyme frequencies and their epidemiological relevance. Med Vet Entomol 12 : 20–29. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bargues MD, Klisiowicz DR, Panzera F, Noireau F, Marcilla A, Perez R, Rojas MG, O’Connor JE, Gonzalez-Candelas F, Galvao C, Jurberg J, Carcavallo RU, Dujardin JP, Mas-Coma S, 2006. Origin and phylogeography of the Chagas disease main vector Triatoma infestans based on nuclear rDNA sequences and genome size. Infect Genet Evol 6 : 46–62. [Google Scholar]
  4. Pinto Dias JC, 2000. Epidemiologia. Brener Z, Andrade Z, Barral-Netto M, eds. Trypanosoma cruzi e Doença de Chagas. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Guanabara Koogan, 48–74.
  5. Barbosa PRB, 2006. The oral transmission of Chagas disease: an acute form of infection responsible for regional outbreaks. Int J Cardiol 112 : 132–133. [Google Scholar]
  6. Dias JCP, 2006. Notas sobre o Trypanosoma cruzi e suas características bio-ecológicas como agente de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 39 : 370–375. [Google Scholar]
  7. Buscaglia CA, Di Noia JM, 2003. Trypanosoma cruzi clonal diversity and the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Microbes Infect 5 : 419–427. [Google Scholar]
  8. Stevens J, Noyes H, Gibson W, 1998. The evolution of Trypanosomes infecting humans and primates. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 93 : 669–676. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gaunt M, Miles M, 2000. The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (triatominae) and their associated trypanosomes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95 : 557–565. [Google Scholar]
  10. Briones MRS, Souto RP, Stolf BS, Zingales B, 1999. The evolution of two Trypanosoma cruzi subgroups inferred from rRNA genes can be correlated with the interchange of American mammalian faunas in the Cenozoic and has implications to pathogenicity and host specificity. Mol Biochem Parasitol 104 : 219–232. [Google Scholar]
  11. Yeo M, Acosta N, Llewellyn M, Sanchez H, Adamson S, Miles GA, Lopez E, Gonzalez N, Patterson JS, Gaunt MW, de Arias AR, Miles MA, 2005. Origins of Chagas disease: Didelphis species are natural hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi I and armadillos hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II, including hybrids. Int J Parasitol 35 : 225–233. [Google Scholar]
  12. Aufderheide AC, Streitz W, Madden M, Streitz J, Buikstra J, Guhl F, Arriaza B, Renier C, Wittmers LE Jr, Fornaciari G, Allison M, 2004. A 9,000-year record of Chagas disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 : 2034–2039. [Google Scholar]
  13. Lima VS, Iniguez AM, Otsuki K, Ferreira LF, Araújo A, Vicente ACP, Jansen AM, 2008. Chagas disease by Trypanosoma cruzi lineage I in huntergatherer ancient population in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 14 : 101–102. [Google Scholar]
  14. de Freitas JM, Augusto-Pinto L, Pimenta JR, Bastos-Rodrigues L, Gonçalves VF, Teixeira SMR, Chiari E, Junqueira AC, Fernandes O, Macedo AM, Machado CR, Pena SD, 2006. Ancestral genomes, sex and the population structure of Trypanosoma cruzi. PLoS Pathog 2 : 226–235. [Google Scholar]
  15. Pedroso A, Cupolillo E, Zingales B, 2007. Trypanosoma cruzi: Exploring the nuclear genome of zymodeme 3 stocks by chromosome size polymorphism. Exp Parasitol 116 : 71–76. [Google Scholar]
  16. Herrera H, Lisboa CV, Pinho AP, Olifiers N, Bianchi FL, Rocha FL, Mourão GM, Jansen AM, 2008. The coati (Nasua nasua, Carnivora, Procyonidae) as a reservoir host for the main lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Pantanal region, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg (in press).
  17. Camandaroba EL, Pinheiro Lima CM, Andrade SG, 2002. Oral transmission of Chagas disease: importance of Trypanosoma cruzi biodeme in the intragastric experimental infection. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 44 : 97–103. [Google Scholar]
  18. Steindel M, Kramer Pacheco L, Scholl D, Soares M, de Moraes MH, Eger I, Kosmann C, Sincero TC, Stoco PH, Murta SM, de Carvalho-Pinto CJ, Grisard EC, 2008. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from humans, vectors, and animal reservoirs following an outbreak of acute human Chagas disease in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 60 : 25–32. [Google Scholar]
  19. Nery-Guimarães F, da Silva NN, Clausell DT, de Mello AL, Rapone T, Snell T, Rodrigues N, 1968. Um surto epidêmico de doença de Chagas de provável transmissão digestiva, ocorrido em Teutônia (Estrela–Rio Grande do Sul). Hospital (Rio J) 73 : 73–110. [Google Scholar]
  20. Deane MP, Lenzi HL, Jansen AM, 1984. Trypanosoma cruzi: vertebrate and invertebrate cycles in the same mammal host, the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 79 : 513–515. [Google Scholar]
  21. Umezawa ES, Shikannai-Yasuda MA, Gruber A, Pereira-Chiccola VL, Zingales B, 1996. Trypanosoma cruzi defined antigens in the serological evaluation of an outbreak of acute Chagas’ disease in Brazil (Catolé do Rocha, Paraíba). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 : 395–398. [Google Scholar]
  22. SVS–Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, 2005. Doença de Chagas Aguda no Município de Santana/Amapá. Brasília, Brazil: Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde.
  23. SESA–Núcleo de Epidemiologia, 2006. Doença de Chagas Aguda. Fortaleza, Brazil: Núcleo de Epidemiologia.
  24. Bonvicino CR, Otazú IB, Vilela JF, 2005. Karyologic and molecular analysis of Proechimys Allen, 1899 (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from the Amazonian region. Arq Mus Nac 63 : 191–200. [Google Scholar]
  25. Camargo ME, 1966. Fluorescent antibody test for the serodiagnoses of American Trypanosomiasis: technical modification employing preserved culture forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in a slide test. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 8 : 227–234. [Google Scholar]
  26. Herrera L, D’Andrea PS, Xavier SCC, Mangia RH, Fernandes O, Jansen AM, 2005. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in wild mammals of the National Park “Serra da Capivara”, and its surroundings (Piauí, Brazil), endemic for Chagas disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99 : 379–388. [Google Scholar]
  27. Vaz VC, D’Andrea PS, Jansen AM, 2007. Effects of habitat fragmentation on wild mammal infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology 134 : 1–9. [Google Scholar]
  28. Brasil MS-SVS, 2003. Manual de Vigilância e Controle da Leishmaniose Visceral: Normas e Manuais Técnicos (Série A). Brazil: Ministério da Saúde, Brasília, Distrito Federal.
  29. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T, 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  30. Fernandes O, Mangia RH, Lisboa CV, Pinho AP, Morel CM, Zingales B, Campbell DA, Jansen AM, 1999. The complexity of the complexity of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in Rio de Janeiro State revealed by non-transcribed spacer of the mini exon gene. Parasitology 118 : 161–166. [Google Scholar]
  31. Barretto MP, Ribeiro RD, Belda Neto FM, 1978. Estudos sobre reservatórios e vectores silvestres do Trypanosoma cruzi. LXVIII: Infecção de mamíferos pela via oral. Rev Bras Biol 38 : 455–459. [Google Scholar]
  32. Calvo Mendez ML, Nogueda Torres B, Alejandre Aguilar R, 1992. The oral route: an access port for Trypanosoma cruzi. Rev Latinoam Microbiol 34 : 39–42. [Google Scholar]
  33. Hoft DF, Farrar PL, Kratz-Owens K, Shaffer D, 1996. Gastric invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and induction of protective mucosal immune responses. Inf Immun 64 : 3800–3810. [Google Scholar]
  34. Cortez M, Silva MR, Neira I, Ferreira D, Sasso GR, Luquetti AO, Rassi A, Yoshida N, 2006. Trypanosoma cruzi surface molecule gp90 down regulates invasion of gastric mucosal epithelium in orally infected mice. Microbes Infect 8 : 36–44. [Google Scholar]
  35. Reinhard KJ, Ambler JR, Szuter CR, 2007. Hunter-gatherer use of small animal food resources: coprolite evidence. Int J Osteoarchaeol 17 : 416–428. [Google Scholar]
  36. Ostfeld RS, Keesing F, 2000. The function of biodiversity in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases. Can J Zool 78 : 2061–2078. [Google Scholar]
  37. McCallum H, Dobson A, 2002. Disease, habitat fragmentation and conservation. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 269 : 2041–2049. [Google Scholar]
  38. Deem SL, Karesh WB, Weisman W, 2001. Putting theory into practice: wildlife health in conservation. Conserv Biol 15 : 1224–1233. [Google Scholar]
  39. Patz JA, Graczyk TK, Geller N, Vittor AY, 2000. Effects of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases. Int J Parasitol 30 : 1395–1405. [Google Scholar]
  40. Teixeira AR, Monteiro PS, Rebelo JM, Arganaraz ER, Vieira D, Lauria-Pires L, Nascimento R, Vexenat CA, Silva AR, Ault SK, Costa JM, 2001. Emerging Chagas disease: trophic network and cycle of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from palm trees in the Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 1 : 100–112. [Google Scholar]
  41. Schmidt KA, Ostfeld RS, 2001. Biodiversity and the dilution effect in disease ecology. Ecology 82 : 609–619. [Google Scholar]
  42. Keesing F, Holt RD, Ostfeld RS, 2006. Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecol Lett 9 : 485–498. [Google Scholar]
  43. Chaves LF, Hernandez MJ, Dobson AP, Pascual M, 2007. Sources and sinks: revisiting the criteria for identifying reservoirs for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trends Parasitol 23 : 311–316. [Google Scholar]
  44. Dobson A, Cattadori I, Holt RD, Ostfeld RS, Keesing F, Krichbaum K, Rohr JR, Perkins SE, Hudson PJ, 2006. Sacred cows and sympathetic squirrels: The importance of biological diversity to human health. PLoS Med 3 : e231. [Google Scholar]
  45. Austad SN, 1988. The adaptable opossum. Sci Am 258 : 98–104. [Google Scholar]
  46. Pinto CM, Ocaña-Mayorga S, Lascano MS, Grijalva MJ, 2006. Infection by trypanosomes in marsupials and rodents associated with human dwellings in Ecuador. J Parasitol 92 : 1251–1255. [Google Scholar]
  47. Ostfeld RS, Keesing F, 2000. Biodiversity and disease risk: the case of Lyme disease. Conserv Biol 14 : 722–728. [Google Scholar]
  48. Chaves LF, Hernandez MJ, 2004. Mathematical modeling of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: incidental hosts and threshold conditions for infection persistence. Acta Trop 92 : 245–252. [Google Scholar]
  49. Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Jones MJ, Marra PP, Daszak P, 2006. West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. PLoS Biol 4 : e82. [Google Scholar]
  50. Olifiers N, Gentile R, Fiszon JT, 2005. Relation between small-mammal species composition and anthropic variables in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Braz J Biol 65 : 495–501. [Google Scholar]
  51. Urdaneta-Morales S, Nironi I, 1996. Trypanosoma cruzi in the anal glands of urban opossums. I–Isolation and experimental infections. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91 : 399–403. [Google Scholar]
  52. Roque ALR, D’Andrea PS, Andrade GB, Jansen AM, 2005. Trypanosoma cruzi: distinct patterns of infection in the sibling caviomorph rodent species Thrichomys apereoides laurentius and Thrichomys pachyurus (Rodentia, Echimyidae). Exp Parasitol 111 : 37–46. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Mar 2008
  • Accepted : 20 Jun 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error