Volume 79, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To estimate the prevalence of spp. infection in a representative sample of the United States population ≥ 6 years of age, sera from participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) were tested for antibodies to . Among the 30,930 persons selected for the survey, 82% ( = 25,733) were interviewed, and 91% ( = 23,527) of those interviewed underwent physical examination of which 87% ( = 20,395) were tested. The age adjusted seroprevalence was 13.9% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 12.5, 15.3), and was higher in non-Hispanic blacks (21.2%) than non-Hispanic whites (12%) or Mexican Americans (10.7%; < 0.001). Increased seropositivity was associated with head of household level of education (low versus high) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; CI: 1.8, 2.8), poverty (OR: 1.5; CI: 1.3, 1.8), elevated blood lead concentrations (OR: 1.4; CI: 1.1, 1.9), and dog ownership (OR: 1.2; CI: 1.1, 1.4). infection is widespread and associated with specific risk groups.


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  • Received : 14 May 2008
  • Accepted : 06 Jul 2008

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