Volume 79, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Newborn and 14-day-old mice inoculated subcutaneously with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) developed lethargy, difficulty walking, dragging of hind limbs, and reduced weight gain within 7–10 days after infection (PI). During the initial 6–7 days PI, the animals had viremia; high levels (10–10 PFU) of CHIKV were also present in leg muscle. The virus persisted in muscle for several days after viremia disappeared. The major histopathologic changes were in skeletal muscle, which were focal necrosis and inflammation, followed by fibrosis and dystrophic calcification. Some mice also showed dystrophic calcification in the joint cartilage, but there were few deaths, and most of the animals eventually recovered. CHIKV antigen was shown by immunohistochemistry in the muscle for several weeks after infection. Based on the clinical and pathologic similarities with CHIKV infection in humans, young ICR and CD-1 mice offer a useful and realistic model for further study of the pathogenesis and treatment of CHIKV infection.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Powers AM, Brault AC, Shirako Y, Strauss EG, Kang W, Strauss JH, Weaver SC, 2001. Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses. J Virol 75 : 10118–10131. [Google Scholar]
  2. Robinson MC, 1955. An epidemic of virus disease in Southern Province, Tanganyika Territory, in 1952–53. I. Clinical features. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 49 : 28–32. [Google Scholar]
  3. Tesh RB, 1982. Arthritides caused by mosquito-borne viruses. Annu Rev Med 33 : 31–40. [Google Scholar]
  4. Powers AM, Logue CH, 2007. Changing patterns of chikungunya virus: re-emergence of a zoonotic arbovirus. J Gen Virol 88 : 2363–2377. [Google Scholar]
  5. Enserink M, 2007. Infectious diseases. Chikungunya: no longer a third world disease. Science 318 : 1860–1861. [Google Scholar]
  6. Carey DE, 1971. Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity? J Hist Med Allied Sci 26 : 243–262. [Google Scholar]
  7. Parola P, de Lamballerie X, Jourdan J, Rovery C, Vaillant V, Minodier P, Brouqui P, Flahault A, Raoult D, Charrel RN, 2006. Novel chikungunya virus variant in travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands. Emerg Infect Dis 12 : 1493–1499. [Google Scholar]
  8. Rezza G, Nicoletti L, Angelini R, Romi R, Finarelli AC, Panning M, Cordioli P, Fortuna C, Boros S, Magurano F, Silvi G, Angelini P, Dottori M, Ciufolini MG, Majori GC, Cassone A, 2007. Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet 370 : 1840–1846. [Google Scholar]
  9. Chretien JP, Linthicum KJ, 2007. Chikungunya in Europe: what’s next? Lancet 370 : 1805–1806. [Google Scholar]
  10. Weaver SC, Tesh RB, Shope RE, 2006. Alphavirus infections. Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases. Principals, Pathogens and Practice. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 831–838.
  11. Murphy FA, Taylor WP, Mims CA, Marshall ID, 1973. Pathogenesis of Ross River virus infection in mice. II. Muscle, heart, and brown fat lesions. J Infect Dis 127 : 129–138. [Google Scholar]
  12. Seay AR, Griffin DE, Johnson RT, 1981. Experimental viral polymyositis: age dependency and immune responses to Ross River virus infection in mice. Neurology 31 : 656–660. [Google Scholar]
  13. Lidbury BA, Simeonovic C, Maxwell GE, Marshall ID, Hapel AJ, 2000. Macrophage-induced muscle pathology results in morbidity and mortality for Ross River virus-infected mice. J Infect Dis 181 : 27–34. [Google Scholar]
  14. Rulli NE, Suhrbier A, Hueston L, Heise MT, Tupanceska D, Zaid A, Wilmes A, Gilmore K, Lidbury BA, Mahalingam S, 2005. Ross River virus: molecular and cellular aspects of disease pathogenesis. Pharmacol Ther 107 : 329–342. [Google Scholar]
  15. Morrison TE, Whitmore AC, Shabman RS, Lidbury BA, Mahalingam S, Heise MT, 2006. Characterization of Ross River virus tropism and virus-induced inflammation in a mouse model of viral arthritis and myositis. J Virol 80 : 737–749. [Google Scholar]
  16. Morrison TE, Fraser RJ, Smith PN, Mahalingam S, Heise MT, 2007. Complement contributes to inflammatory tissue destruction in a mouse model of Ross River virus-induced disease. J Virol 81 : 5132–5143. [Google Scholar]
  17. Tonry JH, Xiao SY, Siirin M, Chen H, da Rosa AP, Tesh RB, 2005. Persistent shedding of West Nile virus in urine of experimentally infected hamsters. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 : 320–324. [Google Scholar]
  18. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1989. Arboviruses. Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797–856.
  19. Xiao SY, Zhang H, Guzman H, Tesh RB, 2001. Experimental yellow fever virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). II. Pathology. J Infect Dis 183 : 1437–1444. [Google Scholar]
  20. Xiao SY, Guzman H, Zhang H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Tesh RB, 2001. West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a model for West Nile encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 714–721. [Google Scholar]
  21. Taubitz W, Cramer JP, Kapaun A, Pfeffer M, Drosten C, Dobler G, Burchard GD, Loscher T, 2007. Chikungunya fever in travelers: clinical presentation and course. Clin Infect Dis 45 : e1–e4. [Google Scholar]
  22. Ramful D, Carbonnier M, Pasquet M, Bouhmani B, Ghazouani J, Noormahomed T, Beullier G, Attali T, Sampertz S, Fourmaintraux A, Alessandri JL, 2007. Mother-to-child transmission of Chikungunya virus infection. Ped Infect Dis J 26 : 811–815. [Google Scholar]
  23. Bachelet T, Bourgeon B, Riviere JP, 2006. Rein et chikungunya. Bull Soc Path Exo 99 : 144–145. [Google Scholar]
  24. Ozden S, Huerre M, Riviere JP, Coffey LL, Afonso PV, Mouly V, de Monredon J, Roger JC, El Amrani M, Yvin JL, Jaffar MC, Frenkiel MP, Sourisseau M, Schwartz O, Butler-Browne G, Despres P, Gessain A, Ceccaldi PE, 2007. Human muscle satellite cells as targets of chikungunya virus infection. PLoS ONE 2 : e527. [Google Scholar]
  25. Rulli NE, Melton J, Wilmes A, Ewart G, Mahalingam S, 2007. The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lessons learned from Ross River virus. Ann NY Acad Sci 1102 : 96–108. [Google Scholar]
  26. Griffin DE, 2007. Alphaviruses. Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology, 5th Edition, Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Williams, 1023–1067.
  27. Amor SA, Scallan MF, Morris MM, Dyson H, Fazakerley JK, 1996. Role of immune responses in protection and pathogenesis during Semliki Forest virus encephalitis. J Gen Virol 77 : 281–291. [Google Scholar]
  28. Fragkoudis R, Breakwell L, McKimmie C, Boyd A, Barry G, Kohn A, Merits A, Fazakerley JK, 2007. The type I interferon system protects mice from Semliki Forest virus by preventing widespread virus dissemination in extraneural tissues, but does not mediate the restricted replication of avirulent virus in central nervous system neurons. J Gen Virol 88 : 3373–3384. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 Jan 2008
  • Accepted : 06 Apr 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error