Volume 78, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Molecular technology has led to the discovery of previously unrecognized species in new hosts, such as in humans. The notion that dogs may transmit species to humans has significant public health implications, and additional studies are merited. The purpose of this study was to examine a group of kenneled dogs to determine the prevalence of species infection and to identify parasite species. Prevalence of active infection was 71%. Six positive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the species. Restriction digest patterns identified as the infecting species in all six dogs; species identity was confirmed by genetic sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring infection in a canine host. The finding of in asymptomatic canines supports the notion of dogs as potential sources of human infection.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Fayer R, 2004. Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite. Vet Parasitol 126 : 37–56. [Google Scholar]
  2. Betancourt WQ, Rose JB, 2004. Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Vet Parasitol 126 : 219–234. [Google Scholar]
  3. Caccio SM, 2005. Molecular epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis. Parassitologia 47 : 185–192. [Google Scholar]
  4. Iseki M, Maekawa T, Moriya K, Uni S, Takada S, 1989. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium muris (strain RN 66) in various laboratory animals. Parasitol Res 75 : 218–222. [Google Scholar]
  5. Aydin Y, Ozkul IA, 1996. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium muris directly isolated from the murine stomach for various laboratory animals. Vet Parasitol 66 : 257–262. [Google Scholar]
  6. Xiao L, Ryan UM, 2004. Cryptosporidiosis: an update in molecular epidemiology. Curr Opin Infect Dis 17 : 483–490. [Google Scholar]
  7. Miller DL, Liggett A, Radi ZA, Branch LO, 2003. Gastrointestinal cryptosporidiosis in a puppy. Vet Parasitol 115 : 199–204. [Google Scholar]
  8. Abe N, Sawano Y, Yamada K, Kimata I, Iseki M, 2002. Cryptosporidium infection in dogs in Osaka, Japan. Vet Parasitol 108 : 185–193. [Google Scholar]
  9. Irwin PJ, 2002. Companion animal parasitology: a clinical perspective. Int J Parasitol 32 : 581–593. [Google Scholar]
  10. el-Ahraf A, Tacal JV Jr, Sobih M, Amin M, Lawrence W, Wilcke BW, 1991. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dogs and human beings in San Bernardino County, California. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198 : 631–634. [Google Scholar]
  11. Hackett T, Lappin MR, 2003. Prevalence of enteric pathogens in dogs of north-central Colorado. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39 : 52–56. [Google Scholar]
  12. Xiao L, Cama VA, Cabrera L, Ortega Y, Pearson J, Gilman RH, 2007. Possible transmission of Cryptosporidium canis between children and a dog in a household. J Clin Microbiol 45 : 2014–2016. [Google Scholar]
  13. Tzipori S, Campbell I, 1981. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium antibodies in 10 animal species. J Clin Microbiol 14 : 455–456. [Google Scholar]
  14. Garcia LS, Shimizu RY, 1997. Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 35 : 1526–1529. [Google Scholar]
  15. Rimhanen-Finne R, Enemark HL, Kolehmainen J, Toropainen P, Hanninen ML, 2007. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs. Vet Parasitol 145 : 345–348. [Google Scholar]
  16. Xiao L, Morgan UM, Limor J, Escalante A, Arrowood M, Shulaw W, Thompson RC, Fayer R, Lal AA, 1999. Genetic diversity within Cryptosporidium parvum and related Cryptosporidium species. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 : 3386–3391. [Google Scholar]
  17. Xiao L, Escalante L, Yang C, Sulaiman I, Escalante AA, Montali RJ, Fayer R, Lal AA, 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the small-subunit rRNA gene locus. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 : 1578–1583. [Google Scholar]
  18. Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen IB, Nei M, 2001. MEGA2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17 : 1244–1245. [Google Scholar]
  19. Fayer R, Morgan U, Upton SJ, 2000. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification. Int J Parasitol 30 : 1305–1322. [Google Scholar]
  20. Warren KS, Swan RA, Morgan-Ryan UM, Friend JA, Elliot A, 2003. Cryptosporidium muris infection in bilbies (Macrotis lagotis). Aust Vet J 81 : 739–741. [Google Scholar]
  21. Simpson JW, Burnie AG, Miles RS, Scott JL, Lindsay DI, 1988. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection in dogs in Edinburgh. Vet Rec 123 : 445. [Google Scholar]
  22. Grimason AM, Smith HV, Parker JF, Jackson MH, Smith PG, Girdwood RW, 1993. Occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in faeces from public parks in the west of Scotland. Epidemiol Infect 110 : 641–645. [Google Scholar]
  23. Causape AC, Quilez J, Sanchez-Acedo C, del Cacho E, 1996. Prevalence of intestinal parasites, including Cryptosporidium parvum, in dogs in Zaragoza city, Spain. Vet Parasitol 67 : 161–167. [Google Scholar]
  24. Kim JT, Wee SH, Lee CG, 1998. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in canine fecal samples by immunofluorescence assay. Korean J Parasitol 36 : 147–149. [Google Scholar]
  25. Bugg RJ, Robertson ID, Elliot AD, Thompson RC, 1999. Gastrointestinal parasites of urban dogs in Perth, Western Australia. Vet J 157 : 295–301. [Google Scholar]
  26. Cirak VY, Bauer C, 2004. Comparison of conventional coproscopical methods and commercial coproantigen ELISA kits for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections in dogs and cats. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 117 : 410–413. [Google Scholar]
  27. Nakai Y, Hikosaka K, Sato M, Sasaki T, Kaneta Y, Okazaki N, 2004. Detection of Cryptosporidium muris type oocysts from beef cattle in a farm and from domestic and wild animals in and around the farm. J Vet Med Sci 66 : 983–984. [Google Scholar]
  28. Huber F, Bomfim TC, Gomes RS, 2005. Comparison between natural infection by Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp. in dogs in two living situations in the West Zone of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Vet Parasitol 130 : 69–72. [Google Scholar]
  29. Giangaspero A, Iorio R, Paoletti B, Traversa D, Capelli G, 2006. Molecular evidence for Cryptosporidium infection in dogs in central Italy. Parasitol Res 99 : 297–299. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Oct 2007
  • Accepted : 11 Mar 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error