Volume 78, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Population genetic analyses were conducted using samples of from 14 localities in the north, southeast, northeast, and central regions of Brazil. An 852-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I () gene was used in the analyses. Ten haplotypes were observed, and cluster analyses revealed 2 groups (lineages) separated by 8 fixed mutations, suggesting that the Brazilian populations probably came from East and West Africa, with evidence of multiple introductions, one related to Group 1 and two related to Group 2. Considering all samples, genetic and geographic distances were significantly correlated ( = 0.332; = 0.038), supporting the isolation by distance (IBD) model, but no correlation was detected for any particular region, which is consistent with human migrations and trade exchanges. Genetic distances (pairwise and values), AMOVA, and cluster analyses indicated a deep genetic structure for the Brazilian , probably resulting from several factors: multiple introductions associated with distinct lineages, geographic differentiation (IBD), passive dispersal patterns, control activities, extinction and recolonization events, and genetic drift.


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  • Received : 29 Aug 2007
  • Accepted : 29 Feb 2008

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