1921
Volume 78, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera and thus might prove useful for prediction. In Bangladesh and Vietnam, temporal cholera distributions are related to satellite-derived and environmental time series data in order to examine the relationships between cholera and the local environment. Ordered probit models examine associations in Bangladesh; probit models examine associations at 2 sites in Vietnam. Increases in ocean chlorophyll concentration are related to an increased magnitude of cholera in Bangladesh. Increases in sea surface temperature are most influential in Hue, Vietnam, whereas increases in river height have a significant role in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Cholera appearance and epidemic magnitude are related to the local environment. Local environmental parameters have consistent effects when cholera is regular and more prevalent in endemic settings, but in situations where cholera epidemics are rare there are differential environmental effects.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.823
2008-05-01
2017-11-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/78/5/0780823.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.823&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lobitz B, Beck L, Huq A, Wood B, Fuchs G, Faruque ASG, Colwell R, 2000. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97 : 1438–1443.
  2. WHO, 2004. Using climate to predict infectious disease outbreaks: a review. Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Response. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  3. Emch M, Ali M, Park JK, Yunus M, Sack DA, Clemens JD, 2006. Relationship between neighbourhood-level killed oral cholera vaccine coverage and protective efficacy: evidence for herd immunity. Int J Epidemiol 35 : 1044–1050.
  4. Cavailler P, Lucas M, Perroud V, McChesney M, Ampuero S, Guerin PJ, Legros D, Nierle T, Mahoudeau C, Lab B, Kahozi P, Deen JL, von Seidlein L, Wang XY, Puri M, Ali M, Clemens JD, Songane F, Baptista A, Ismael F, Arreto AB, Chaignat CL, 2006. Feasibility of a mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in an urban cholera-endemic setting in Mozambique. Vaccine 24 : 4890–4895.
  5. Emch M, Ali M, 2001. Spatial and temporal patterns of diarrheal disease in Matlab, Bangladesh. Environ Plan A 33 : 339–350.
  6. Islam MS, Drasar BS, Sack RB, 1993. The aquatic environment as a reservoir of Vibrio cholerae: a review. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 11 : 197–206.
  7. Longini IM Jr, Yunus M, Zaman K, Siddique AK, Sack RB, Nizam A, 2002. Epidemic and endemic cholera trends over a 33-year period in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis 186 : 246–251.
  8. Merson MH, Black RE, Khan MU, Huq I, 1980. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea: acquired immunity and transmission in an endemic area. Cholera and Related Diarrheas: Molecular Basis of a Global Health Problem. 43rd Nobel Symposium. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 34–45.
  9. Colwell RR, Huq A, 1994. Environmental reservoir of Vibrio cholerae—the causative agent of cholera. Ann NY Acad Sci 740 : 44–54.
  10. Islam MS, Drasar BS, Bradley DJ, 1989. Attachment of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 to various freshwater plants and survival with a filamentous green alga, Rhizoclonium fontanum. J Trop Med Hyg 92 : 396–401.
  11. Islam MS, Drasar BS, Bradley DJ, 1990. Survival of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 with a common duckweed, Lemna minor, in artificial aquatic ecosystems. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 : 422–424.
  12. Khan MU, 1981. Role of water supply and sanitation in the incidence of cholera in refugee camps. Scientific Report 45. Dhaka, Bangladesh: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research.
  13. Islam MS, Drasar BS, Sack RB, 1994. Probable Role of blue-green-algae in maintaining endemicity and seasonality of cholera in Bangladesh—a hypothesis. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 12 : 245–256.
  14. Koelle K, Pascual M, 2004. Disentangling extrinsic from intrinsic factors in disease dynamics: a nonlinear time series approach with an application to cholera. Am Nat 163 : 901–913.
  15. Islam MS, Hasan MK, Miah MA, Qadri F, Yunus M, Sack RB, Albert MJ, 1993. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal from water in Bangladesh. Lancet 342 : 430.
  16. Nalin DR, Daya V, Reid A, Levine MM, Cisneros L, 1979. Adsorption and growth of Vibrio cholerae on chitin. Infect Immun 25 : 768–770.
  17. Nalin DR, 1976. Cholera, copepods, and chitinase. Lancet 2 : 958.
  18. Huq A, Colwell RR, 1996. Vibrios in the marine and estuarine environment: tracking Vibrio cholerae. Ecosyst Health 2 : 198–214.
  19. Kiorboe T, Nielsen TG, 1994. Regulation of zooplankton biomass and production in a temperate, coastal ecosystem. 1. Cope-pods. Limnol Oceanogr 39 : 493–507.
  20. Faruque SM, Naser IB, Islam MJ, Faruque ASG, Ghosh AN, Nair GB, Sack DA, Mekalanos JJ, 2005. Seasonal epidemics of cholera inversely correlate with the prevalence of environmental cholera phages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102 : 1702–1707.
  21. Chakraborty S, Mukhopadhyay AK, Bhadra RK, Ghosh AN, Mitra R, Shimada T, Yamasaki S, Faruque SM, Takeda Y, Colwell RR, Nair GB, 2000. Virulence genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae. Appl Environ Microbiol 66 : 4022–4028.
  22. Huq A, Xu B, Chowdhury MAR, Islam MS, Montilla R, Colwell RR, 1996. A simple filtration method to remove plankton-associated Vibrio cholerae in raw water supplies in developing countries. Appl Environ Microbiol 62 : 2508–2512.
  23. Islam MS, Talukder KA, Khan NH, Mahmud ZH, Rahman MZ, Nair GB, Siddique AK, Yunus M, Sack DA, Sack RB, Huq A, Colwell RR, 2004. Variation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment of Bangladesh and its correlation with the clinical strains. Microbiol Immunol 48 : 773–777.
  24. Miller CJ, Drasar BS, Feachem RG, 1982. Cholera and estuarine salinity in Calcutta and London. Lancet 1 : 1216–1218.
  25. Faruque SM, Albert MJ, Mekalanos JJ, 1998. Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62 : 1301–1314.
  26. Lipp EK, Huq A, Colwell RR, 2002. Effects of global climate on infectious disease: the cholera model. Clin Microbiol Rev 15 : 757.
  27. Miller CJ, Drasar BS, Feachem RG, 1984. Response of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 to physicochemical stresses in aquatic environments. J Hyg (Lond) 93 : 475–495.
  28. Ruiz-Moreno D, Pascual M, Bouma M, Dobson A, Cash B, 2007. Cholera seasonality in Madras (1901–1940): dual role for rainfall in endemic and epidemic regions. EcoHealth 4 : 52–62.
  29. Ai CR, Norton EC, 2003. Interaction terms in logit and probit models. Econ Lett 80 : 123–129.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.823
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.823
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Sep 2007
  • Accepted : 16 Jan 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error