Volume 78, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A urine–polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was validated for diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniosis (VL), taking advantage of the accessibility of urine samples. DNA presence was examined in 17 urine samples from 17 patients with VL during a clinical episode and in 55 urine samples from 17 patients with VL monitored after treatment at different intervals. Fifty-nine urine samples from 59 controls with no history of VL were also studied. The urine–PCR test was positive in 15/17 samples obtained during the episode (sensitivity, 88%). None of the controls tested were urine–PCR positive (specificity, 100%). During the monitoring period, 25% of the samples gave a positive urine–PCR. Results were compared with other diagnostic methods, such as urine antigen detection and peripheral blood–PCR and culture, with good concordance during the clinical episode and differences in the follow-up period. This study suggests that urine–PCR is sensitive for diagnosis and may be useful to monitor treatment efficacy.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Desjeux P, Alvar J, 2003. Leishmania/HIV co-infections: epidemiology in Europe. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97 : 3–15. [Google Scholar]
  2. Alvar J, Cañavate C, Gutierrez-Solar B, Jiménez M, Laguna F, López-Vélez R, Molina R, Moreno J, 1997. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev 10 : 298–319. [Google Scholar]
  3. Smyth AJ, Ghosh A, Hassan MQ, Basu D, De Bruijn MH, Adhya S, Mallik KK, Barker DC, 1992. Rapid and sensitive detection of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA from spleen and blood samples of kalaazar patients. Parasitology 105 : 183–192. [Google Scholar]
  4. Pizzuto M, Piazza M, Senese D, Scalamogna C, Calattini S, Corsico L, Persico T, Adriani B, Magni C, Guaraldi G, Gaiera G, Ludovisi A, Gramiccia M, Galli M, Moroni M, Corbellino M, Antinori S, 2001. Role of PCR in diagnosis and prognosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 357–361. [Google Scholar]
  5. Fisa R, Riera C, Ribera E, Gállego M, Portús M, 2002. A nested polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis and follow-up of human visceral leishmaniasis patients using blood samples. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 : S191–S194. [Google Scholar]
  6. Mebrahtu YB, Hendricks LD, Oster CN, Lawyer PG, Perkins PV, Pamba H, Koech D, Roberts CR, 1993. Leishmania donovani parasites in the nasal secretions, tonsillopharyngeal mucosa, and urine centrifugates of visceral leishmaniasis patients in Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 : 530–535. [Google Scholar]
  7. Riera C, Valladares JE, 1996. Viable Leishmania infantum in urine and semen in experimentally infected dogs. Parasitol Today 12 : 412. [Google Scholar]
  8. Solano-Gallego L, Rodriguez-Cortes A, Trotta M, Zampieron C, Razia L, Furlanello T, Caldin M, Roura X, Alberola J, 2007. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA by fret-based real-time PCR in urine from dogs with natural clinical leishmaniosis. Vet Parasitol 147 : 315–319. [Google Scholar]
  9. De Colmenares M, Portús M, Riera C, Gállego M, Aisa MJ, Torras S, Muñoz C, 1995. Short report: detection of 72–75-kD and 123-kD fractions of Leishmania antigen in urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 : 427–428. [Google Scholar]
  10. Kohanteb J, Ardehali SM, Rezai HR, 1987. Detection of Leishmania donovani soluble antigen and antibody in the urine of visceral leishmaniasis patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81 : 578–580. [Google Scholar]
  11. Attar ZJ, Chance ML, el-Safi S, Carney J, Azazy A, El-Hadi M, Dourado C, Hommel M, 2001. Latex agglutination test for the detection of urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis. Acta Trop 78 : 11–16. [Google Scholar]
  12. Riera C, Fisa R, López-Chejade P, Ribera E, Carrió J, Falcó V, Molina I, Gállego M, Portús M, 2004. Evaluation of a latex agglutination test (KAtex) for detection of Leishmania antigen in urine of patients with HIV-Leishmania coinfection: value in diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23 : 899–904. [Google Scholar]
  13. Riera C, Fisa R, Ribera E, Carrió J, Falcó V, Gállego M, Moner L, Molina I, Portús M, 2005. Value of culture and nested polymerase chain reaction of blood in the prediction of relapses in patients co-infected with Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 : 1012–1015. [Google Scholar]
  14. Giovannelli L, Lama A, Capra G, Giordano V, Arico P, Ammatuna P, 2004. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in cervical samples: analysis of the new PGMY-PCR compared to the hybrid capture II and MY-PCR assays and a two-step nested PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 3861–3864. [Google Scholar]
  15. Cohen J, 1960. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas 20 : 37–46. [Google Scholar]
  16. Lachaud L, Dereure J, Chabbert E, Reynes J, Mauboussin JM, Oziol E, Dedet JP, Bastien P, 2000. Optimized PCR using patient blood samples for diagnosis and follow-up of visceral leishmaniasis, with special reference to AIDS patients. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 236–240. [Google Scholar]
  17. Bossolasco S, Gaiera G, Olchini D, Gulletta M, Martello L, Bestetti A, Bossi L, Germagnoli L, Lazzarin A, Uberti-Foppa C, Cinque P, 2003. Real-time PCR assay for clinical management of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 41: 5080–5084. Erratum in J Clin Microbiol 42 : 1858. [Google Scholar]
  18. Fisa R, Riera C, Gállego M, Manubens J, Portús M, 2001. Nested PCR for diagnosis of canine leishmaniosis in peripheral blood, lymph node and bone marrow aspirates. Vet Parasitol 99 : 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  19. Caravaca F, Munoz A, Pizarro JL, Saez de Santamaria J, Fernandez-Alonso J, 1991. Acute renal failure in visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Nephrol 11 : 350–352. [Google Scholar]
  20. Dutra M, Martinelli R, de Carvalho EM, Rodrigues LE, Brito E, Rocha H, 1985. Renal involvement in visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Kidney Dis 6 : 22–27. [Google Scholar]
  21. Salgado Filho N, Ferreira TM, Costa JM, 2003. [Involvement of the renal function in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (kalaazar)]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 36 : 217–221. [Google Scholar]
  22. Solano-Gallego L, Rodriguez A, Iniesta L, Arboix M, Portús M, Alberola J, 2003. Detection of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G antibodies in urine specimens of dogs with leishmaniasis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10 : 849–855. [Google Scholar]
  23. Lichtenstein AV, Melkonyan HS, Tomei LD, Umansky SR, 2006. Novel applications of polymerase chain reaction to urinary nucleic acid analysis. Methods Mol Bio 336 : 145–154. [Google Scholar]
  24. Umansky SR, Tomei LD, 2006. Transrenal DNA testing: progress and perspectives. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 6 : 153–163. [Google Scholar]
  25. Mary C, Faraut F, Lascombe L, Dumon H, 2004. Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA by a real-time PCR assay with high sensitivity. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 5249–5255. [Google Scholar]
  26. Riera C, Fisa R, Udina M, Gállego M, Portús M, 2004. Detection of Leishmania infantum cryptic infection in asymptomatic blood donors living in an endemic area (Eivissa, Balearic Islands, Spain) by different diagnostic methods. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 : 102–110. [Google Scholar]
  27. Le Fichoux Y, Quaranta JF, Aufeuvre JP, Lelievre A, Marty P, Suffia I, Rousseau D, Kubar J, 1999. Ocurrence of Leishmania infantum parasitemia in asymptomatic blood donors living in an area of endemicity in Southern France. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 1953–1957. [Google Scholar]
  28. Lemesre L, Darcy F, Kweider M, Capron A, Santero F, 1988. Requirements of defined cultivation conditions for standard growth of Leishmania promastigotes in vitro. Acta Trop 45 : 99–108. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 19 Jul 2007
  • Accepted : 20 Nov 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error