1921
Volume 78, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

and occur endemically in many parts of Africa. Observations from malariotherapy patients suggest that co-infection with may increase gametocyte production. We determined gametocyte prevalence and density by quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) after antimalarial treatment of Kenyan children with either mono-infection or and mixed infection. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between mixed species infections and microscopic gametocyte prevalence in three datasets from previously published studies. In Kenyan children, QT-NASBA gametocyte density was increased in mixed species infections ( = 0.03). We also observed higher microscopic prevalences of gametocytes in mixed species infections in studies from Tanzania and Kenya (odds ratio = 2.15, 95% confidence interval = 0.99–4.65 and 2.39, 1.58–3.63) but not in a study from Nigeria. These data suggest that co-infection with is correlated with increased gametocytemia.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.442
2008-03-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/78/3/0780442.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.442&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Marques PX, Saute F, Pinto VV, Cardoso S, Pinto J, Alonso PL, Rosario VE, Arez AP, 2005. Plasmodium species mixed infections in two areas of Manhica District, Mozambique. Int J Biol Sci 1 : 96–102.
  2. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, 1963. A longitudinal survey of natural malaria infection in a group of West African adults. West Afr Med J 12 : 199–217.
  3. Miller MJ, 1958. Observations on the natural history of malaria in the semi-resistant West African. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 52 : 152–168.
  4. Wilson DB, 1936. Rural hyper-endemic malaria in Tanganyika territory. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 6 : 583–618.
  5. Arez AP, Pinto J, Palsson K, Snounou G, Jaenson TG, do Rosario V, 2003. Transmission of mixed Plasmodium species and Plasmodium falciparum genotypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 161–168.
  6. Molineaux L, Storey J, Cohen JE, Thomas A, 1980. A longitudinal study of human malaria in the West African Savanna in the absence of control measures: relationships between different Plasmodium species, in particular P. falciparum and P. malariae. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29 : 725–737.
  7. Barnish G, Maude GH, Bockarie MJ, Erunkulu OA, Dumbuya MS, Greenwood BM, 1993. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. II. Parasitological and related results from pre- and post-rains clinical surveys. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 87 : 137–148.
  8. Pinto J, Sousa CA, Gil V, Goncalves L, Lopes D, do Rosario V, Charlwood JD, 2000. Mixed-species malaria infections in the human population of Sao Tome island, west Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 256–257.
  9. Black J, Hommel M, Snounou G, Pinder M, 1994. Mixed infections with Plasmodium falciparum and P malariae and fever in malaria. Lancet 343 : 1095.
  10. Mason DP, McKenzie FE, Bossert WH, 1999. The blood-stage dynamics of mixed Plasmodium malariae-Plasmodium falciparum infections. J Theor Biol 198 : 549–566.
  11. Richie TL, 1998. Interactions between malaria parasites infecting the same vertebrate host. Parasitology 96 : 607–639.
  12. Bruce MC, Day KP, 2003. Cross-species regulation of Plasmodium parasitaemia in semi-immune children from Papua New Guinea. Trends Parasitol 19 : 271–277.
  13. McKenzie FE, Jeffery GM, Collins WE, 2002. Plasmodium malariae infection boosts Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte production. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 : 411–414.
  14. Price R, Nosten F, Simpson JA, Luxemburger C, Phaipun L, ter Kuile F, van Vugt M, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, White NJ, 1999. Risk factors for gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 1019–1023.
  15. Mutero CM, Ouma JH, Agak BK, Wanderi JA, Copeland RS, 1998. Malaria prevalence and use of self-protection measures against mosquitoes in Suba District, Kenya. East Afr Med J 75 : 11–15.
  16. Gouagna LC, Okech BA, Kabiru EW, Killeen GF, Obare P, Ombonya S, Beier JC, Knols BG, Githure JI, Yan G, 2003. Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in patients attending rural health centres in western Kenya. East Afr Med J 80 : 627–634.
  17. Bousema JT, Schneider P, Gouagna LC, Drakeley CJ, Tostmann A, Houben R, Githure JI, Ord R, Sutherland CJ, Omar SA, Sauerwein RW, 2006. Moderate effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. J Infect Dis 193 : 1151–1159.
  18. Boom R, Sol CJ, Salimans MM, Jansen CL, Wertheim-van Dillen PM, van der Noordaa J, 1990. Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol 28 : 495–503.
  19. Schneider P, Bousema T, Omar S, Gouagna L, Sawa P, Schallig H, Sauerwein R, 2006. (Sub)microscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia in Kenyan children after treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy or in combination with artesunate. Int J Parasitol 36 : 403–408.
  20. Babiker HA, Abdel-Wahab A, Ahmed S, Suleiman S, Ranford-Cartwright L, Carter R, Walliker D, 1999. Detection of low level Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parasitol 99 : 143–148.
  21. Ponnudurai T, Lensen AH, Leeuwenberg AD, Meuwissen JH, 1982. Cultivation of fertile Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in semi-automated systems. 1. Static cultures. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 76 : 812–818.
  22. Mens PF, Schoone GJ, Kager PA, Schallig HD, 2006. Detection and identification of human Plasmodium species with real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. Malar J 5 : 80.
  23. Dunyo S, Milligan P, Edwards T, Sutherland C, Targett G, Pinder M, 2006. Gametocytaemia after drug treatment of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum. PloS Clinical Trials 1 : e20.
  24. Mendez F, Munoz A, Plowe CV, 2006. Use of area under the curve to characterize transmission potential after antimalarial treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 : 640–646.
  25. Drakeley CJ, Carneiro I, Reyburn H, Malima R, Lusingu JP, Cox J, Theander TG, Nkya WM, Lemnge MM, Riley EM, 2005. Altitude-dependent and -independent variations in Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in northeastern Tanzania. J Infect Dis 191 : 1589–1598.
  26. Bousema JT, Gouagna LC, Drakeley CJ, Meutstege AM, Okech BA, Akim IN, Beier JC, Githure JI, Sauerwein RW, 2004. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya. Malar J 3 : 18.
  27. Molineaux L, Gramiccia G, 1980. The Garki Project. Research on the Epidemiology and Control of Malaria in the Sudan Savannah of West Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  28. Cohen JE, Singer B, 1979. Malaria in Nigeria: constrained continuous-time Markov models for discrete-time longitudinal data on human mixed-species infections. Levin SA, ed. Some Mathematical Questions in Biology. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 12: 69–133.
  29. Akim NI, Drakeley C, Kingo T, Simon B, Senkoro K, Sauerwein RW, 2000. Dynamics of P. falciparum gametocytemia in symptomatic patients in an area of intense perennial transmission in Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 : 199–203.
  30. Sinden RE, 1983. The cell biology of sexual development in plasmodium. Parasitology 86 : 7–28.
  31. Drakeley C, Sutherland C, Bousema JT, Sauerwein RW, Targett GA, 2006. The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: weapons of mass dispersion. Trends Parasitol 22 : 424–430.
  32. McKenzie FE, Prudhomme WA, Magill AJ, Forney JR, Permpanich B, Lucas C, Gasser RA Jr, Wongsrichanalai C, 2005. White blood cell counts and malaria. J Infect Dis 192 : 323–330.
  33. McKenzie FE, Bossert WH, 1998. The optimal production of gametocytes by Plasmodium falciparum. J Theor Biol 193 : 419–428.
  34. Bruce MC, Donnelly CA, Alpers MP, Galinski MR, Barnwell JW, Walliker D, Day KP, 2000. Cross-species interactions between malaria parasites in humans. Science 287 : 845.
  35. Taylor LH, Walliker D, Read AF, 1997. Mixed-genotype infections of the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi are more infectious to mosquitoes than single-genotype infections. Parasitology 115 : 121–132.
  36. Butcher G, 1998. Cross-species immunity in malaria. Parasitol Today 14 : 166.
  37. Smith T, Genton B, Baea K, Gibson N, Narara A, Alpers MP, 2001. Prospective risk of morbidity in relation to malaria infection in an area of high endemicity of multiple species of Plasmodium. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 262–267.
  38. Bruce MC, Day KP, 2002. Cross-species regulation of malaria parasitaemia in the human host. Curr Opin Microbiol 5 : 431–437.
  39. Boyd MF, Kitchen SF, 1937. Simultaneous inoculation with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17 : 855–861.
  40. Collins WE, Skinner JC, Richardson BB, Stanfill PS, 1975. Studies on the transmission of simian malaria. VI. Mosquito infection and sporozoite transmission of Plasmodium fragile. J Parasitol 61 : 718–721.
  41. Collins WE, Warren M, Skinner JC, Richardson BB, Kearse TS, 1979. Effect of sequential infection with Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in the Aotus trivirgatus monkey. J Parasitol 65 : 605–608.
  42. Schneider P, Bousema JT, Gouagna LC, Otieno S, van de Vegte-Bolmer M, Omar S, Sauerwein R, 2007. Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte densities frequently result in mosquito infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 : 470–474.
  43. Terlouw DJ, Courval JM, Kolczak MS, Rosenberg OS, Oloo AJ, Kager PA, Lal AA, Nahlen BL, ter Kuile FO, 2003. Treatment history and treatment dose are important determinants of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine efficacy in children with uncomplicated malaria in Western Kenya. J Infect Dis 187 : 467–476.
  44. Snounou G, Pinheiro L, Goncalves A, Fonseca L, Dias F, Brown KN, do Rosario V, 1993. The importance of sensitive detection of malaria parasites in the human and insect hosts in epidemiological studies, as shown by the analysis of field samples from Guinea Bissau. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 : 649–653.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.442
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.442
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 May 2007
  • Accepted : 19 Nov 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error