Volume 78, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


and spp. infections can cause systemic and ocular disease. To estimate the prevalence of infection with these organisms, we tested serum samples from persons ≥ 12 years of age obtained in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Among those tested for both and spp. (n = 16,646), the age-adjusted antibody prevalence was 23.6% (95% confidence limit [CL] = 22.1–25.1%) and the spp. antibody prevalence was 14.0% (95% CL = 12.7–15.4%). Multivariate analysis controlling demographic and risk factors showed that persons infected with spp. were more likely to be infected with (odds ratio [OR] = 1.93, 95% CL = 1.61–2.31), and similarly, persons infected with were more likely to be infected with spp. (OR = 1.91, 95% CL = 1.59–2.28). Infection with and spp. are common and can be prevented by many similar interventions.


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  • Received : 13 Sep 2007
  • Accepted : 04 Oct 2007

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