1921
Volume 78, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

sensu lato mosquitoes were collected from 24 gravid traps (mid-June to mid-October, 2005) in Fresno County, CA. Captured gravid females were allowed to oviposit before sibling species identification by PCR and detection of West Nile virus (WNV) RNA by RT-PCR were performed on the mother and her offspring. Of the 442 s.l. female mosquitoes collected, 88 were positive for WNV viral RNA (peaked in August) with no significant differences among complex members or habitat. Vertical transmission was detected in 4 out of 20 families originating from WNV-positive mothers, however, in only a small number of offspring from each family. Out of 101 families that had PCR-based maternal and offspring identifications, the offspring from 15 families produced inexplicable amplicon patterns, suggesting ambiguities in the PCR assay identifications. Male genitalia (/ ratio) and PCR identifications revealed numerous discrepancies in our ability to accurately determine the identity of complex members in the hybrid zone of Fresno County.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.303
2008-02-01
2017-11-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/78/2/0780303.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.303&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, Crise B, Volpe KE, Crabtree MB, Scherret JH, Hall RA, MacKenzie JS, Cropp CB, Panigrahy B, Ostlund E, Schmitt B, Malkinson M, Banet C, Weissman J, Komar N, Savage HM, Stone W, McNamara T, Gubler DJ, 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286 : 2333–2337.
  2. Anderson JF, Andreadis TG, Vossbrink CR, Tirrell S, Wakem EM, French RA, Garmendia AE, van Kruiningen HJ, 2000. Isolation of West Nile from mosquitoes, crows, and a Coopers hawk in Connecticut. Science 286 : 2331.
  3. California Department of Health Services Vector-Borne Disease Section. 2004. Mosquito Pool Summary Report 12/03/04. Sacramento, CA: CDHS, 1–26.
  4. Goddard LB, Roth AE, Reisen WK, Scott TW, 2002. Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 1385–1391.
  5. Goddard LB, Roth AE, Reisen WK, Scott TW, 2003. Vertical transmission of West Nile virus by three California Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) species. J Med Entomol 40 : 743–746.
  6. Turell MJ, O’Guinn M, Oliver J, 2000. Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 413–414.
  7. Dohm DJ, O’Guinn ML, Turell MJ, 2002. Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J Med Entomol 39 : 221–225.
  8. Tabachnick WJ, Powell JR, 1983. Genetic analysis of Culex pipiens populations in the central valley of California. Ann Entomol Soc Am 76 : 715–720.
  9. Urbanelli S, Silvestrini F, Reisen WK, De Vito E, Bullini L, 1997. Californian hybrid zone between Culex pipiens pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus revisited (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 34 : 116–127.
  10. Cornel AJ, McAbee RD, Rasgon J, Stanich M, Scott TW, Coetzee M, 2003. Differences in extent of genetic introgression between sympatric Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in California and South Africa. J Med Entomol 40 : 36–51.
  11. Fonseca DM, Keyghobadi N, Malcolm CA, Mehmet C, Schaffner F, Motoyoshi M, Fleischer RC, Wilkerson RC, 2004. Emerging vectors in the Culex pipiens complex. Science 303 : 1535–1538.
  12. Spielman A, Andreadis TG, Apperson CS, Cornell AJ, Day JF, Edman JD, Fish D, Harrington LC, Kiszewski AE, Lampman R, Lanzaro GC, Matuschka FR, Munstermann LE, Nasci RS, Norris DE, Novak RJ, Pollack RJ, Reisen WK, Reiter P, Savage HM, Tabachnick WJ, Wesson DM, 2004. Outbreak of virus in North America. Science 306 : 1473 (letter to the editor).
  13. Barr AR, 1982. The Culex pipiens complex. Steiner WWM, Tabachnik WJ, Rai WS, Narang S, eds. Recent Developments in the Genetics of Insect Disease Vectors. Urbana, IL: Stipes, 551–572.
  14. Urbanelli S, Bullini L, Villani F, 1985. Electrophoretic studies on Culex quinquefasciatus Say from Africa: genetic variability and divergence from Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res 75 : 291–304.
  15. Byrne K, Nichols RA, 1998. Culex pipiens in London Underground tunnels: differentiation between surface and subterranean populations. Heredity 82 : 7–15.
  16. Chevillon C, Rivet Y, Raymond M, Rousset F, Smouse PE, Pasteur N, 1998. Migration/selection balance and ecotypic differentiation in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Mol Ecol 7 : 197–208.
  17. Spielman A, 2001. Structure and seasonality of Nearctic Culex pipiens populations. Ann NY Acad Sci 951 : 220–234.
  18. Dobrotworsky NV, 1967. The problem of the Culex pipiens complex in the south Pacific (including Australia). Bull WHO 37 : 251–255.
  19. Cheng ML, Hacker CS, 1976. Inheritance of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase variance in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. J Hered 67 : 215–219.
  20. Cheng ML, Hacker CS, 1979. The genetics of hexokinase in a mosquito, Culex pipiens. Genetics 92 : 903–913.
  21. Jupp PG, 1978. Culex (Culex) pipiens pipiens Linnaeus and Culex (Culex) pipiens quinquefasciatus Say in South Africa: morphological and reproductive evidence in favour of their status as two species. Mosq Systematics 10 : 461–473.
  22. Miles SJ, Paterson HE, 1979. Protein variation and systematics in the Culex pipiens group of species. Mosq Systematics 11 : 187–202.
  23. Varma MGR, 1960. Preliminary studies on the infection of culicine mosquitoes with the Tamiland strain of West Nile virus. Indian J Med Res 48 : 537–548.
  24. Jupp PG, McIntosh BM, 1970. Quantitative experiments on the vector capability of Culex (Culex) pipiens fatigans Weidemann with West Nile and Sindbis viruses. J Med Entomol 7 : 353–356.
  25. Hubalek Z, Halouzka J, 1999. West Nile fever: a reemerging mosquito borne viral disease in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 5 : 643–650.
  26. Sundararaman S, 1949. Biometrical studies on intergradation in the genitalia of certain populations of Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus in the United States. Am J Hyg 50 : 307–314.
  27. Aspen and Savage, 2003. Polymerase chain reaction assay identifies North American members of the Culex pipiens complex based on nucleotide sequence differences in the acetylcholinesterase gene Ace.2. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 19 : 323–328.
  28. Smith JL, Fonseca DM, 2004. Rapid assays for identification of members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens complex, their hybrids, and other sibling species (Diptera: Culicidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 339–345.
  29. Bourguet D, Raymond M, Fournier D, Malcolm CA, Toutant JP, Arpagaus M, 1996. Existence of two acetylcholinesterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Neurochem 67 : 2115–2123.
  30. Malcolm CA, Bourguet D, Ascolillo A, Rooker SJ, Garvey CF, Hall LM, Pasteur N, Raymond M, 1998. A sex-linked Ace gene, not linked to insensitive acetylcholinesterase-mediated insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens. Insect Mol Biol 7 : 107–120.
  31. Reiter P, 1983. A portable, battery-powered trap for collecting gravid Culex mosquitoes. Mosquito News 43 : 496–499.
  32. Christiansen JA, Smith C, Madon MB, Albright J, Hazeleur W, Hazelrigg J, Kluh S, McAbee RD, Mulligan FS, Leal W, Cornel AJ, 2005. Use of gravid traps for collection of California West Nile vectors. Proc Papers Calif Mosq Control Assoc Ann Conf 73 : 91–95.
  33. Collins FH, Mendez MA, Rasmussen MO, Mehaffey PC, Besansky NJ, Finnerty V, 1987. A ribosomal RNA gene probe differentiates member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37 : 37–41.
  34. Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, Godsey MS, Mitchell CJ, Savage HM, Komar N, Panella NA, Allen BC, Volpe KE, Davis BS, Roehrig JT, 2000. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 4066–4071.
  35. Shi P, Kauffman EB, Ren P, Felton A, Tai JH, Dupuis AP II, Jones SA, Ngo KA, Nichols DC, Maffei J, Ebel GD, Bernard KA, Kramer LD, 2001. High-throughput detection of West Nile virus RNA. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 1264–1271.
  36. Gujral IB, Zielinski-Gutierrez EC, LeBailly A, Nasci R, 2007. Behavioral risks for West Nile virus disease, Northern Colorado, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 13 : 419–425.
  37. Pfuntner WC, 1979. A modified CO2-baited miniature surveillance trap. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 4 : 31–35.
  38. Reisen WK, Barker CM, Carney R, Lothrop HD, Wheeler SS, Wilson JL, Madon MB, Takahashi R, Caroll B, Garcia S, 2006a. Role of corvids in epidemiology of West Nile virus in southern California. J Med Entomol 43 : 356–367.
  39. Nasci RS, Mitchell CJ, 1996. Arbovirus titer variation in field-collected mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 12 : 167–171.
  40. Barr AR, Morrison AC, Guptavanji P, Bangs MJ, Cope SE, 1986. Parity rates of mosquitoes collected in San Joaquin marsh. Proc Calif Mosq Vector Control Assoc 54 : 117–118.
  41. Reisen WK, Pfuntner AR, 1987. Effectiveness of five methods for sampling adult Culex mosquitoes in rural and urban habitats in San Bernardino County, California. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 3 : 601–606.
  42. Reisen WK, Lothrop HD, Hardy JL, 1995. Bionomics of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to arbovirus transmission in southeastern California. J Med Entomol 32 : 316–327.
  43. Reisen WK, Fang Y, Lothrop HD, Martinez VM, Wilson J, O’Conner P, Carney R, Cahoon-Young B, Shafii M, Brault AC, 2006b. Overwintering of West Nile virus in Southern California. J Med Entomol 43 : 344–355.
  44. Wilton JH, Jakob WL, 1985. Temperature-induced morphological change in Culex pipiens. J Am Mos Control Assoc 1 : 174–177.
  45. Raymond M, Callaghan A, Fort P, Pasteur N, 1991. Worldwide migration of amplified insecticide resistance genes in mosquitoes. Nature 350 : 151–153.
  46. Martinez-Torres D, Chevillon C, Brun-Barale A, Berge JB, Pasteur N, Pauron D, 1999. Voltage-dependent Na+ channels in pyrethroid-resistant Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes. Pest Science 55 : 1012–1020.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.303
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.303
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 May 2007
  • Accepted : 25 Nov 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error