Volume 78, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Laboratory tools to monitor infection burden are important to evaluate progress and determine endpoints in programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. We evaluated changes in microfilaria, filarial antigen and Bm14 antibody in individuals who participated in a five-year mass drug administration trial in Papua New Guinea. Comparing values before treatment and one year after four annual treatments, the proportion of microfilaria positive individuals declined to the greatest degree, with less marked change in antibody and antigen rates. Considering children as sentinel groups who reflect recent transmission intensity, children surveyed before the trial were more frequently microfilaria and antibody positive than those examined one year after the trial stopped. In contrast, antigen positive rates were similar in the two groups. All infection indicators continued to decline five years after cessation of mass drug administration; Bm14 antibody persisted in the greatest proportion of individuals. These data suggest that Bm14 antibody may be a sensitive test to monitor continuing transmission during and after mass drug administration aimed at eliminating transmission of lymphatic filariasis.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Molyneux DH, Zagaria N, 2002. Lymphatic filariasis elimination: progress in global programme development. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Suppl 2): S15–S40. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ottesen EA, 2000. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Trop Med Int Health 5 : 591–594. [Google Scholar]
  3. Weil GJ, Ramzy RM, 2007. Diagnostic tools for filariasis elimination programs. Trends Parasitol 23 : 78–82. [Google Scholar]
  4. Lammie PJ, Weil G, Noordin R, Kaliraj P, Steel C, Goodman D, Lakshmikanthan VB, Ottesen E, 2004. Recombinant antigen-based antibody assays for the diagnosis and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis—a multicenter trial. Filaria J 3 : 9. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ottesen EA, 2006. Lymphatic filariasis: treatment, control and elimination. Adv Parasitol 61 : 395–441. [Google Scholar]
  6. Weil GJ, Lammie PJ, Weiss N, 1997. The ICT filariasis test: a rapid-format antigen test for diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol Today 13 : 401–404. [Google Scholar]
  7. Weil GJ, Ramzy RM, Chandrashekar R, Gad AM, Lowrie RC Jr, Faris R, 1996. Parasite antigenemia without microfilaremia in bancroftian filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 333–337. [Google Scholar]
  8. Turner P, Copeman B, Gerisi D, Speare R, 1993. A comparison of the Og4C3 antigen capture ELISA, the Knott test, an IgG4 assay and clinical signs, in the diagnosis of Bancroftian filariasis. Trop Med Parasitol 44 : 45–48. [Google Scholar]
  9. More SJ, Copeman DB, 1990. A highly specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen in bancroftian filariasis. Trop Med Parasitol 41 : 403–406. [Google Scholar]
  10. Chandrashekar R, Curtis KC, Li BW, Weil GJ, 1995. Molecular characterization of a Brugia malayi intermediate filament protein which is an excretory-secretory product of adult worms. Mol Biochem Parasitol 73 : 231–239. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bockarie MJ, Kazura JW, 2003. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: prospects for elimination. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 192 : 9–14. [Google Scholar]
  12. Tisch DJ, Hazlett FE, Kastens W, Alpers MP, Bockarie MJ, Kazura JW, 2001. Ecologic and biologic determinants of filarial antigenemia in bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea. J Infect Dis 184 : 898–904. [Google Scholar]
  13. Helmy H, Weil GJ, Ellethy AS, Ahmed ES, Setouhy ME, Ramzy RM, 2006. Bancroftian filariasis: effect of repeated treatment with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on microfilaraemia, antigenaemia and antifilarial antibodies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100 : 656–662. [Google Scholar]
  14. Tisch DJ, Michael E, Kazura JW, 2005. Mass chemotherapy options to control lymphatic filariasis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 5 : 514–523. [Google Scholar]
  15. Bockarie MJ, Tavul L, Ibam I, Kastens W, Hazlett F, Tisch DJ, Alpers MP, Kazura JW, 2007. Efficacy of single-dose diethylcarbamazine compared with diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole against Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 : 62–66. [Google Scholar]
  16. Nicolas L, Plichart C, Nguyen LN, Moulia-Pelat JP, 1997. Reduction of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm circulating antigen after annual treatments of diethylcarbamazine combined with ivermectin in French Polynesia. J Infect Dis 175 : 489–492. [Google Scholar]
  17. Alexander ND, Bockarie MJ, Dimber ZB, Griffin L, Kazura JW, Alpers MP, 2001. Migration and dispersal of lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 277–279. [Google Scholar]
  18. Bockarie MJ, Tisch DJ, Kastens W, Alexander ND, Dimber Z, Bockarie F, Ibam E, Alpers MP, Kazura JW, 2002. Mass treatment to eliminate filariasis in Papua New Guinea. N Engl J Med 347 : 1841–1848. [Google Scholar]
  19. Williams SA, Laney SJ, Bierwert LA, Saunders LJ, Boakye DA, Fischer P, Goodman D, Helmy H, Hoti SL, Vasuki V, Lammie PJ, Plichart C, Ramzy RM, Ottesen EA, 2002. Development and standardization of a rapid, PCR-based method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes, for xenomonitoring the human prevalence of bancroftian filariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Suppl 2): S41–S46. [Google Scholar]
  20. Ramzy RM, 2002. Field application of PCR-based assays for monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Suppl 2): S55–S59. [Google Scholar]
  21. Ramzy RM, El Setouhy M, Helmy H, Ahmed ES, Abd Elaziz KM, Farid HA, Shannon WD, Weil GJ, 2006. Effect of yearly mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Egypt: a comprehensive assessment. Lancet 367 : 992–999. [Google Scholar]
  22. Michael E, Malecela-Lazaro MN, Maegga BT, Fischer P, Kazura JW, 2006. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions. Trends Parasitol 22 : 529–535. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 Aug 2007
  • Accepted : 14 Sep 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error