Volume 78, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Results of stool examinations for infections with among schoolchildren, living in a village of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used as an indicator to identify schistosomiasis-positive individuals within the entire population. This new approach is based on dividing the community into schoolchildren, members of households of schistosomiasis-positive and -negative schoolchildren, and members of households without schoolchildren. Each subgroup was evaluated comparing different sampling efforts with the predetermined “gold standard” to find the best relationship between detection rate and sampling effort. Consequently these results were combined, and a proposal for a new strategy, valid for an entire community, was elaborated. This alternative approach during the screening process permits to treat a similar proportion of positives as detected with 6 Kato–Katz slides of 3 stool samples, with 3-fold reduced sampling effort, enhancing the efficiency of schistosomiasis control programs in low-endemic areas.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Katz N, 1998. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 93 (Suppl 1): 33–35. [Google Scholar]
  2. Barbosa CS, Montenegro SML, Abat FG, Domingues AL, 2001. Specific situations related to acute schistosomiasis in Pernambuco, Brasil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96 (Suppl 5): 169–172. [Google Scholar]
  3. Enk MJ, Amorim A, Schall VT, 2003. Acute schistosomiasis outbreak in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: alert about the risk of unnoticed transmission increased by growing rural tourism. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 6): 745–750. [Google Scholar]
  4. Enk MJ, Caldeira RL, Carvalho OS, Schall VT, 2004. Rural tourism as a risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Mina Gerais, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl 1): 105–108. [Google Scholar]
  5. De Vlaas SJ, Gryseels B, 1992. Underestimation of Schistosoma mansoni prevalences. Parasitol Today 8 : 274–277. [Google Scholar]
  6. Rabelo A, Enk MJ, 2007. Working Paper 8. Progress towards the Detection of Schistosomiasis. Scientific Working Group. Report on Schistosomiasis. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/tdr/swg/07.
  7. Massara CL, Peixoto SV, Enk MJ, Barros HS, Carvalho OS, Sakurai E, Schall VT, 2006. Evaluation of an improved approach using residences of schistosomiasis-positive schoolchildren to identify carriers in an area of low endemicity. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 495–499. [Google Scholar]
  8. Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14 : 397–400. [Google Scholar]
  9. Blagg W, Schoegel EL, Mansour NS, Khalat GI, 1955. A new concentration technique for the demonstration of protozoa and helminth eggs in feces. Am J Trop Med Hyg 4 : 23–28. [Google Scholar]
  10. Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2003. Manual for Public Health Workers: Schistosomiasis. Fourth edition. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Ministry of Health—National Health Foundation.
  11. Kongs A, Marks G, Verle P, Van det Stuyft P, 2001. The unreliability of the Kato–Katz technique limits its usefulness for evaluation of S. mansoni infections. Trop Med Int Health 6 : 163–169. [Google Scholar]
  12. Rabelo ALT, Rocha RS, Oliveira JPM, Katz N, Lambertucci JR, 1992. Stool examination and rectal biopsy in the diagnosis and therapeutical evaluation of Schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 34 : 601–608. [Google Scholar]
  13. Engels D, Sinzinkayo E, de Vlas SJ, Gryseels B, 1996. Intraspecimen fecal egg count variation in Schistosoma mansoni infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 : 319–324. [Google Scholar]
  14. Utzinger J, Booth M, N’Goran EK, Muller I, Tanner M, Lengeler C, 2001. Relative contribution of day-to-day and intraspecimen variation in faecal egg counts of Schistosoma mansoni before and after treatment with praziquantel. Parasitology 122 : 537–554. [Google Scholar]
  15. Engels D, Sinzinkayo E, de Vlas SJ, Gryseels B, 1997. Day-to-day egg count fluctuation in Schistosoma mansoni infection and its operational implications. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 : 571–577. [Google Scholar]
  16. Almeida Machado P, 1982. The Brazilian program for schistosomiasis control, 1975–1979. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31 : 76–86. [Google Scholar]
  17. World Health Organization, 2000. Report of the WHO Informal Consultation on Schistosomiasis in Low Transmission Areas: Control Strategies and Criteria for Elimination. WHO/CDS/CPE/SIP/2001.1. Geneva: WHO.
  18. Schall VT, Dias AGP, Malaquias MLG, Gomes dos Santos M, 1993. Educação em saúde em escolas públicas de primeiro grau da periferia de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brasil). Avaliação de um programa relativo a esquistossomose. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 35 : 563–572. [Google Scholar]
  19. Coura-Filho P, 1998. An alternative model for schistosomiasis control with active participation by the population through the unified health system (SUS) in Taquaraçu de Minas (Minas Gerais, Brazil) from 1985 to 1995. Cad Saúde Púb 14 : 111–122. [Google Scholar]
  20. Barbosa CB, Silva CB, Barbosa FN, 1996. Esquistossomose: reprodução e expansão da endemia no estado de Pernambuco no Brasil. Rev Saúde Púb 30 : 609–616. [Google Scholar]
  21. Lammie PJ, Fenwick A, Utzinger J, 2006. A blueprint for success: integration of neglected tropical disease control programmes. Trends Parasitol 22 : 313–321. [Google Scholar]
  22. Brady AM, Hooper PJ, Otterson EA, 2006. Projected benefits from integrating NTD programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Trends Parasitol 22 : 285–291. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Mar 2007
  • Accepted : 24 Sep 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error