1921
Volume 77, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases caused by rickettsiae in association with arthropods. We report the detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in Taiwan using molecular methods. Phylogenetic analyses of the 17-kd protein and citrate synthase () genes showed that SFGR TwKM01 detected in ticks was most similar to . Three TwKM01 isolates were obtained from three individual ticks. Small, intracellular, coccobacillary bacteria were found in infected L929 cells using immunofluorescence antibody testing and transmission electron microscopy. Two other SFGRs, TwKM02 and TwKM03, identified in chigger mites, were closely related to and URRWXCal, respectively. The TwKM03 strain was also detected in ticks and widely distributed in Hualien, Kinmen, and Lienchiang counties in Taiwan. The endonucleases II and I selected for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the and 17-kd polymerase chain reaction products, respectively, were useful for genotyping species TwKM01, TwKM02, TwKM03, and other SFGRs. Although their infectivity and pathogenicity for vertebrates are unknown, the finding of SFGRs raises the possibility that bacteria other than , , and may be involved in rickettsial diseases in Taiwan.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.883
2007-11-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/77/5/0770883.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.883&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Azad AF, Beard CB, 1998. Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors. Emerg Infect Dis 4 : 179–186.
  2. Chen HL, Chen HY, Horng CB, 1993. Surveillance of scrub typhus in Taiwan. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 26 : 166–170.
  3. Lee HC, Ko WC, Lee HL, Chen HY, 2002. Clinical manifestations and complications of rickettsiosis in southern Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 101 : 385–392.
  4. Takada N, Fujita H, Yano Y, Huang WH, Khamboonruang C, 1993. Serosurveys of spotted fever and murine typhus in local residents of Taiwan and Thailand compared with Japan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 24 : 354–356.
  5. Wang JH, Wang YH, Cheng DL, Liu YC, Yen MY, Chen YS, 1993. Acute Q fever: first case report in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 92 : 917–919.
  6. Raoult D, Roux V, 1997. Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev 10 : 694–719.
  7. Fournier P-E, Fujita H, Takada N, Raoult D, 2002. Genetic identification of rickettsiae isolated from ticks in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 2176–2181.
  8. Mahara F, 1997. Japanese spotted fever: report of 31 cases and review of the literature. Emerg Infect Dis 3 : 105–111.
  9. Fournier P-E, Dumler JS, Greub G, Zhang J, Wu Y, Raoult D, 2003. Gene sequence-based criteria for identification of new Rickettsia isolates and description of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 5456–5465.
  10. Choi YJ, Jang WJ, Ryu JS, Lee SH, Park KH, Paik HS, Koh YS, Choi MS, Kim IS, 2005. Spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsioses in humans, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 237–244.
  11. Zhang J, 1999. Media and host research on spotted fever group rickettsia in China. Chin J Zoonoses 15 : 85–87.
  12. Chen HL, Chen HY, Chung CL, Lin TH, Wang GR, Horng CB, 1997. Primary surveillance of spotted fever group antibodies on rats in the Kinmen area. Chin J Microbiol Immunol Infect 30 : 55–61.
  13. Uchida T, Uchiyama T, Kumano K, Walker DH, 1992. Rickettsia japonica sp. nov., the etiological agent of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Japan. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42 : 303–305.
  14. Yu X, Jin Y, Fan M, Xu G, Liu Q, Raoult D, 1993. Genotypic and antigenic identification of two new strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from China. J Clin Microbiol 31 : 83–88.
  15. Zhang JZ, Fan MY, Wu YM, Fournier P-E, Roux V, Raoult D, 2000. Genetic classification of “Rickettsia heilongjiangii” and “Rickettsia hulinii,” two Chinese spotted fever group rickettsiae. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 3498–3501.
  16. Roux V, Rydkina E, Eremeeva M, Raoult D, 1997. Citrate synthase gene comparison, a new tool for phylogenetic analysis, and its application for the rickettsiae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 : 252–261.
  17. Ishikura M, Ando S, Shinagawa Y, Matsumura K, Hasegawa S, Nakayama T, Fujita H, Watanabe M, 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae based on gltA, 17-kd, and rOmpA genes amplified by nested PCR from ticks in Japan. Microbiol Immunol 47 : 823–832.
  18. Jeanmougin F, Thompson JD, Gouy M, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ, 1998. Multiple sequence alignment with Clustal X. Trends Biochem Sci 23 : 403–405.
  19. Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M, 2004. MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5 : 150–163.
  20. Tsai KH, Huang CG, Wu WJ, Chuang CK, Lin CC, Chen WJ, 2006. Parallel infection of Japanese encephalitis virus and Wolbachia within cells of mosquito salivary glands. J Med Entomol 43 : 752–756.
  21. Fournier P-E, Tissot-Dupont H, Gallais H, Raoult D, 2000. Rickettsia mongolotimonae: a rare pathogen in France. Emerg Infect Dis 6 : 290–292.
  22. Nielsen H, Fournier P-E, Pedersen IS, Krarup H, Ejlertsen T, Raoult D, 2004. Serological and molecular evidence of Rickettsia helvetica in Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis 36 : 559–563.
  23. Zavala-Velazquez J, Laviada-Molina H, Zavala-Castro J, Perez-Osorio C, Becerra-Carmona G, Ruiz-Sosa JA, Bouyer DH, Walker DH, 2006. Rickettsia felis, the agent of an emerging infectious disease: report of a new case in Mexico. Arch Med Res 37 : 419–422.
  24. Nogueras MM, Cardenosa N, Sanfeliu I, Munoz T, Font B, Segura F, 2006. Serological evidence of infection with Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis among human population of Catalonia, in the northeast of Spain. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 123–126.
  25. Paddock CD, Sumner JW, Comer JA, Zaki SR, Goldsmith CS, Goddard J, McLellan SL, Tamminga CL, Ohl CA, 2004. Rickettsia parkeri: a newly recognized cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 38 : 805–811.
  26. Vitale G, Mansueto S, Rolain JM, Raoult D, 2006. Rickettsia massiliae human isolation. Emerg Infect Dis 12 : 174–175.
  27. Graves S, Unsworth N, Stenos J, 2006. Rickettsioses in Australia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078 : 74–79.
  28. Cazorla C, Enea M, Lucht F, Raoult D, 2003. First isolation of Rickettsia slovaca from a patient, France. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 135.
  29. Raoult D, Fournier P-E, Abboud P, Caron F, 2002. First documented human Rickettsia aeschlimanii infection. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 748–749.
  30. La Scola B, Meconi S, Fenollar F, Rolain JM, Roux V, Raoult D, 2002. Emended description of Rickettsia felis (Bouyer et al. 2001), a temperature-dependent cultured bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 : 2035–2041.
  31. Teng KF, Jiang ZJ, 1991. Economic Insect Fauna of China, Fasc 39, Acari: Ixodae. Bejing, China: Science Press.
  32. Yin H, Lu W, Luo J, 1997. Babesiosis in China. Trop Anim Health Prod 29 : 11S–15S.
  33. Fujita H, Takada N, Chaithong U, 2002. Preliminary report on rickettsial strains of spotted fever group isolated from ticks of China, Nepal and Thailand. Annu Rep Ohara Hosp 44 : 15–18.
  34. Choi J, Lee E-M, Park J-M, Lee K-M, Han S-H, Kim J-K, Lee S-H, Song H-J, Choi M-S, Kim I-S, Park K-H, Jang W-J, 2007. Molecular detection of various rickettsiae in mites (Acari: Trombiculidae) in southern Jeolla Province, Korea. Microbiol Immunol 51 : 307–312.
  35. Krusell A, Comer JA, Sexton DJ, 2002. Rickettsialpox in North Carolina: a case report. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 727–728.
  36. Tay ST, Ho TM, Rohani MY, Devi S, 2000. Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi and spotted fever group rickettsiae among febrile patients in rural areas of Malaysia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 280–284.
  37. Blair PJ, Jiang J, Schoeler GB, Moron C, Anaya E, Cespedes M, Cruz C, Felices V, Guevara C, Mendoza L, Villaseca P, Sumner JW, Richards AL, Olson JG, 2004. Characterization of spotted fever group Rickettsiae in flea and tick specimens from northern Peru. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 4961–4967.
  38. Labruna MB, Camargo LM, Camargo EP, Walker DH, 2005. Detection of a spotted fever group Rickettsia in the tick Haemaphysalis juxtakochi in Rondonia, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 127 : 169–174.
  39. Campbell RW, Domrow R, 1974. Rickettsioses in Australia: isolation of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and R. australis from naturally infected arthropods. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68 : 397–402.
  40. Boyd AS, 1997. Rickettsialpox. Dermatol Clin 15 : 313–318.
  41. Walker DH, 1989. Rickettsioses of the spotted fever group around the world. J Dermatol 16 : 169–177.
  42. Takada N, Fujita H, Yano Y, Tsuboi Y, Mahara F, 1994. First isolation of a rickettsia closely related to Japanese spotted fever pathogen from a tick in Japan. J Med Entomol 31 : 183–185.
  43. Radulovic SJ, Higgins A, Jaworski DC, Dasch GA, Azad AF, 1995. Isolation, cultivation, and partial characterization of the ELB agent associated with cat fleas. Infect Immun 63 : 4826–4829.
  44. Kelly PJ, 2004. A review of bacterial pathogens in Ctenocephalides felis in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 52 : 352–357.
  45. Kenny MJ, Birtles RJ, Day MJ, Shaw SE, 2003. Rickettsia felis in the United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 1023–1024.
  46. Richter JP, Fournier P-E, Petridou J, Haussinger D, Raoult D, 2002. Rickettsia felis infection acquired in Europe and documented by polymerase chain reaction. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 207–208.
  47. Shaw SE, Kenny MJ, Tasker S, Birtles RJ, 2004. Pathogen carriage by the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche) in the United Kingdom. Vet Microbiol 102 : 183–188.
  48. Zavala-Velazquez JE, Ruiz-Sosa JA, Sanchez-Elias RA, Becerra-Carmona G, Walker DH, 2000. Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis in Yucatan. Lancet 356 : 1079–1080.
  49. Parola P, Miller RS, McDaniel P, Telford SR, Rolain JM, Wongsrichanalai C, Raoult D, 2003. Emerging rickettsioses of the Thai-Myanmar border. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 592–595.
  50. Raoult D, La Scola B, Enea M, Fournier P-E, Roux V, Fenollar F, Galvao MA, de Lamballerie X, 2001. A flea-associated Rickettsia pathogenic for humans. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 73–81.
  51. Azad AF, Sacci JB Jr, Nelson WM, Dasch GA, Schmidtmann ET, Carl M, 1992. Genetic characterization and transovarial transmission of a typhus-like rickettsia found in cat fleas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89 : 43–46.
  52. Weller SJ, Baldridge GD, Munderloh UG, Noda H, Simser J, Kurtti TJ, 1998. Phylogenetic placement of rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis. J Clin Microbiol 36 : 1305–1317.
  53. Ishikura M, Fujita H, Ando S, Matsumura K, Watanabe M, 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group Rickettsiae isolated from ticks in Japan. Microbiol Immunol 46 : 241–247.
  54. Regnery RL, Spruill CL, Plikaytis BD, 1991. Genotypic identification of rickettsiae and estimation of intraspecies sequence divergence for portions of two rickettsial genes. J Bacteriol 173 : 1576–1589.
  55. Beati L, Finidori JP, Gilot B, Raoult D, 1992. Comparison of serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein analysis, and genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of rickettsiae: characterization of two new rickettsial strains. J Clin Microbiol 30 : 1922–1930.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.883
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.883
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Erratum

  • Received : 14 Feb 2007
  • Accepted : 02 Aug 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error