Volume 77, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Infections from are of interest not only to public health, but also to wildlife conservation, particularly when humans and livestock encroach on nature and thereby increase the risk of cross-species transmissions. To clarify this risk, we used polymerase chain reaction to examine the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene in feces from three monkey species. Samples were isolated from regions where disease transmission between monkeys, livestock, and humans was likely (soiled habitat) or unlikely (clean habitat). Monkey individuals, their social groups, and different species shared multiple genotypes/isolates of . Ecological and molecular analyses suggested that infection among Toque macaques in soiled habitats was mainly the bovine genotype . Monkeys inhabiting clean habitat, particularly gray and purple-faced langurs, lacked species/types associated with bovines. Livestock apparently was a main source of infection for wild primates.


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  • Received : 09 Oct 2006
  • Accepted : 22 Jul 2007

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