1921
Volume 77, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Infections from are of interest not only to public health, but also to wildlife conservation, particularly when humans and livestock encroach on nature and thereby increase the risk of cross-species transmissions. To clarify this risk, we used polymerase chain reaction to examine the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene in feces from three monkey species. Samples were isolated from regions where disease transmission between monkeys, livestock, and humans was likely (soiled habitat) or unlikely (clean habitat). Monkey individuals, their social groups, and different species shared multiple genotypes/isolates of . Ecological and molecular analyses suggested that infection among Toque macaques in soiled habitats was mainly the bovine genotype . Monkeys inhabiting clean habitat, particularly gray and purple-faced langurs, lacked species/types associated with bovines. Livestock apparently was a main source of infection for wild primates.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.818
2007-11-01
2017-11-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/77/5/0770818.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.818&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Perera J, 1988. Cryptosporidium associated with childhood diarrhea in Sri Lanka—a preliminary study. Ceylon Med J 35 : 11–14.
  2. Bahirathan M, Weilgama DJ, Wijesundera MK, De S, 1987. Identification of three species of Eimeria and oocyst of Cryptosporidium from calves of Sri Lanka. Ceylon Vet J 35 : 13–18.
  3. Dissanaiake AS, 1993. Parasitic zoonoses in Sri Lanka, occasional review. Ceylon Med J 38 : 150–187.
  4. Noordeen F, Rajapakse RPVJ, Faizal ACM, Horadagoda NU, Arulkanthan A, 2000. Prevalence of Crytosporidium infection in goats in selected locations in three agro climatic zones of Sri Lanka. Vet Parasitol 93 : 95–101.
  5. Ekanayake DK, Arulkanthan A, Horadagoda NU, Sanjeevani GKM, Kieft R, Dittus WPJ, 2006. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other enteric parasites among wild non human primates at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 322–329.
  6. Current WL, Garcia LS, 1991. Cryptosporidiosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 4 : 325–358.
  7. Jellison KL, Hemond HF, Schauer DB, 2002. Sources and species of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Wachusett reservoir Watershed. Appl Environ Microbiol 68 : 569–575.
  8. Morgan U, Weber R, Xiao L, Sulaiman R, Thompson C, Ndiritu W, Lal A, Moore A, Deplazes P, 2000. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates obtained from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals living in Switzerland, Kenya, and the United States. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 1180–1183.
  9. Sulaiman IM, Xiao L, Yang C, Escalante L, Moore A, Beard CB, Arrowood MJ, Lal AA, 1998. Differentiating human from animal isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Emerg Infect Dis 4 : 681–685.
  10. Gatei W, Greensill J, Ashford RW, Cuevas LE, Parry CM, Cunliffe NA, Beeching NJ, Hart CA, 2003. Molecular analysis of the 18S r RNA gene of the Cryptosporidium parasites from patient with or without human immunodeficiency virus infections living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom and Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 1458–1462.
  11. Dittus WPJ, 1998. Birth sex ratios in Toque macaques and other mammals: integrating the effects of maternal condition and competition. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 44 : 149–160.
  12. Le Blancq SM, Khramtsov NV, Zamani F, Upton SJ, Wu TW, 1997. Ribosomal RNA gene organization in Cryptosporidium parvum. Mol Biochem Parasitol 90 : 463–478.
  13. Fayer R, Morgan U, Upton SJ, 2000. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification. Int J Parsitol 30 : 1305–1322.
  14. Casemore DP, Wright WE, Coop RL, 1997. Cryptosporidiosis: human and animal epidemiology. Fayer, R, ed. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 65–92.
  15. Graff de DC, Vanopdenbosch E, Ortega-Mora LM, Abassi H, Peters JE, 1999. A review of the importance of crytptosporidosis in farm animals. Int J Parasitol 29 : 1269–1287.
  16. Xiao L, Morgan UM, Limor J, Escalante A, Arrowood M, Shulaw W, Thompson RC, Fayer R, Lal AA, 1999. Genetic diversity within Cryptosporidium parvum and related Cryptosporidium species. Appl Environ Microbiol 5 : 3386–3391.
  17. Xiol L, Limor JR, Sulaiman IM, Duncan RB, Lal AA, 2000. Molecular characterization of a Cryptosporidium isolate from a black bear. J Parasitol 86 : 1166–1170.
  18. MacKenzie WR, Schell WL, Blair KA, Addiss DG, Peterson DE, Hoxie NJ, Kazmierczak JJ, Davis JP, 1995. Massive outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidium infection in Milwaukee, Wisconsin: recurrence of illness and risk of secondary transmission. Clin Infect Dis 21 : 57–62.
  19. Zhou L, Fayer R, Trout M, Ryan UM, Schaefer FW, Xiao L, 2004. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species infecting fur bearing mammals differ from those of species infecting humans. Appl Environ Microbiol 70 : 7574–7577.
  20. Heitman TL, Frederick LM, Viste JR, Guselle NJ, Morgan UM, Thompson RC, Olson ME, 2002. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp isolated from wildlife, human and agricultural sources in the North Saskatchewan river basin in Alberta, Canada. Can J Microbiol 48 : 530–541.
  21. Lefay D, Naciri M, Poirier P, Chermette R, 2000. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in calves in France. Vet Parasitol 89 : 1–9.
  22. Applebee AJ, Thompson ARC, Olson ME, 2005. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in mammalian wildlife-current status and future need. Trend Parasitol 21 : 370–376.
  23. Nizeyi JB, Sebunya D, Dasilva AJ, Cranfield MR, Pieniazek NJ, Graczyk TK, 2002. Cryptosporidiosis in people sharing habitats with free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei), Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 442–444.
  24. Sturdee AP, Chalmers RM, Bull SA, 1999. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the wild mammals of midland Britain. Vet Parasitol 80 : 273–280.
  25. Webster JP, Macdonald DW, 1995. Cryptosporidiosis reservoir in wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the UK. Epidemiol Infect 115 : 207–209.
  26. Tanriverdi S, Markovics A, Arslan MO, Itik A, Shkap V, Widmer G, 2006. Emergence of distinct genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum in structured host populations. Appl Environ Microiol 72 : 2507–2513.
  27. Dittus WPJ, 1977. The social regulation of population density and age-sex distribution in the toque monkey. Behaviour 63 : 281–322.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.818
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.818
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 Oct 2006
  • Accepted : 22 Jul 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error