Volume 77, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


In high-elevation areas in western Kenya, the abundance of is either very low or absent. The western Kenya highlands (an area with an elevation > 1,500m above sea level) have also been experiencing extensive deforestation, and deforestation has been suggested as one of the important factors that facilitate malaria transmission in the highlands. This study investigated whether climate conditions in the western Kenya highlands (Kakamega, elevation 1,500 m above sea level) were permissive to the development and survival of and whether deforestation promoted survivorship of immature and adult stages, using life-table analysis. We found that in larval habitats located in forested areas, only 4–9% of first-instar larvae developed into adults and the development length exceeded 20 days. Mean water temperature of aquatic habitats in the deforested area was 4.8–6.1°C higher than that in the forested area, larval-to-adult survivorship was increased to 65–82%, and larval-to-adult development time was shortened by 8–9 days. The average indoor temperature in houses in the deforested area was 1.7–1.8°C higher than in the forested area, and the relative humidity was 22–25% lower. The median survival time of adult mosquitoes in the deforested area was 49–55% higher than those in the forested area. The net reproductive rate of female mosquitoes in the deforested area was 1.7- to 2.6-fold higher than that in the forested area. Compared with previously published data on , the net reproductive rate of was only 0.8–1.3% of in the forested area and 2.3–2.6% in the deforested area. Therefore, the current ambient climate condition is less permissive to than to in western Kenya highlands. However, environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming may facilitate the establishment of populations in the highlands.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Pascual M, Ahumada JA, Chaves LF, Rodo X, Bouma M, 2006. Malaria resurgence in the East African highlands: temperature trends revisited. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 11 : 5635–5636. [Google Scholar]
  2. Zhou G, Minakawa N, Githeko AK, Yan G, 2004. Association between climate variability and malaria epidemics in the East African highlands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 : 2375–2380. [Google Scholar]
  3. Round-Turner D, 1994. Kakamega Forest—The Official Guide. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Programme.
  4. FAO, 1993. Forest Resources Assessment, 1990: Tropical Countries. FAO Forestry Paper No. 112. Rome, Italy: FAO.
  5. Lindblade KA, Walker ED, Onapa AW, Katungu J, Wilson M, 2000. Land use change alters malaria transmission parameters by modifying temperature in a highland area of Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 5 : 263–274. [Google Scholar]
  6. Munga S, Minakawa N, Zhou G, Mushinzimana E, Barrack OO, Githeko AK, Yan G, 2006. Association between land cover and habitat productivity of malaria vectors in western Kenyan highlands. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 69–75. [Google Scholar]
  7. Manga L, Toto JC, Carnevale P, 1995. Malaria vectors and transmission in an area deforested for a new international airport in southern Cameroon. Soc Belges Med Trop 75 : 43–49. [Google Scholar]
  8. Conn JE, Wilkerson RC, Segura MN, de Souza RT, Schlichting CD, Wirtz RA, Povoa MM, 2002. Emergence of a new neo-tropical malaria vector facilitated by human migration and changes in land use. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 18–22. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ndenga B, Githeko AK, Omukunda E, Munyekenye OG, Atieli H, Wamae P, Mbogo C, Minakawa N, Zhou G, Yan G, 2006. Population dynamics of malaria vectors in the western Kenya highlands. J Med Entomol 43 : 200–206. [Google Scholar]
  10. Minakawa N, Seda P, Yan G, 2002. Influence of host and larval habitat distribution on the abundance of African malaria vectors in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 : 32–38. [Google Scholar]
  11. Chen H, Githeko AK, Zhou G, Githure JI, Yan G, 2006. New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission. Malar J 7 : 17. [Google Scholar]
  12. Maharaj R, 2003. Life table characteristics of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) under simulated seasonal conditions. J Med Entomol 40 : 737–742. [Google Scholar]
  13. Mahmood F, 1997. Life-table attributes of Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann) under controlled laboratory conditions. J Vector Ecol 22 : 103–108. [Google Scholar]
  14. Grieco JP, Achee NL, Briceno I, King R, Andre R, Roberts D, Rejmankova E, 2003. Comparison of life table attributes from newly established colonies of Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles vestitipennis in northern Belize. J Vector Ecol 28 : 200–207. [Google Scholar]
  15. Minakawa N, Sonye G, Yan G, 2005. Relationships between occurrence of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) and size and stability of larval habitats. J Med Entomol 42 : 295–300. [Google Scholar]
  16. SAS, Inc., 1994. JMP User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS, Inc.
  17. Kaufman MG, Wanja E, Maknojia S, Bayoh MN, Vulule JM, Walker ED, 2006. Importance of algal biomass to growth and development of Anopheles gambiae larvae. J Med Entomol 43 : 669–676. [Google Scholar]
  18. Nobre CA, Sellers PJ, Shukla J, 1991. Amazonian deforestation and regional climate change. J Clim 4 : 957–988. [Google Scholar]
  19. United Nations, 2005. World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision. ESA/P/WP.193. New York: United Nations.
  20. Colluzi M, Sabatini A, Petrarca V, Di Deco MA, 1979. Chromosomal differentiation and adaptation to human environments in the Anopheles gambiae complex. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73 : 483–497. [Google Scholar]
  21. Afrane YA, Lawson BW, Githeko AK, Yan G, 2005. Effects of microclimatic changes due to land use and land cover on the duration of gonotrophic cycles of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya highlands. J Med Entomol 42 : 974–980. [Google Scholar]
  22. McDonald G, 1957. The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria. London: Oxford University Press.
  23. Tuno N, Okeka W, Minakawa N, Takagi M, Yan G, 2005. Survivorship of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in western Kenya highland forest. J Med Entomol 42 : 270–277. [Google Scholar]
  24. Bayoh MN, Lindsay SW, 2003. Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res 93 : 375–381. [Google Scholar]
  25. Afrane YA, Zhou G, Lawson BW, Githeko AK, Yan G, 2006. Effects of microclimatic changes due to deforestation on the survivorship and reproductive fitness of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya highlands. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 772–778. [Google Scholar]
  26. Coz J, 1973. Les mécanismes d’isolement génétique dans le complex Anopheles gambiae Giles. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 11: 41–56. [Google Scholar]
  27. Lindsay SW, Parson L, Thomas CJ, 1998. Mapping the ranges and relative abundance of the two principal African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, using climate data. Proc Biol Sci 265 : 847–854. [Google Scholar]
  28. Koenraadt CJM, Paaijmans KP, Schneider P, Githeko AK, Takken W, 2006. Low level vector survival explains unstable malaria in the western Kenya highlands. Trop Med Int Health 11 : 1195–1205. [Google Scholar]
  29. Chinery WA, 1984. Effects of ecological changes on the malaria vectors Anopheles funestus and the An. gambiae complex of mosquitoes in Accra, Ghana. J Trop Med Hyg 87 : 75–81. [Google Scholar]
  30. Walsh JF, Molyneux DH, Birley MH, 1993. Deforestation: effects on vector-borne disease. Parasitology 106 : S55–S75. [Google Scholar]
  31. Klinkenberg E, Konradsen F, Herrel N, Mukhtar M, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe FP, 2004. Malaria vectors in the changing environment of the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 : 442–449. [Google Scholar]
  32. Antonio-Nkondjio C, Simard F, Awono-Ambene P, Ngassam P, Toto JC, Tchuinkam T, Fontenille D, 2005. Malaria vectors and urbanization in the equatorial forest region of south Cameroon. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99 : 347–354. [Google Scholar]
  33. Patz JA, Graczyk TK, Geller N, Vittor AY, 2000. Effects of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases. Int J Parasitol 30 : 1395–1405. [Google Scholar]
  34. White GB, 1974. Anopheles gambiae complex and disease transmission in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68 : 278–301. [Google Scholar]
  35. Githeko AK, Adungo NI, Karanja DM, Hawley WA, Vulule JM, Seroney IK, Ofulla AV, Atieli FK, Ondijo SO, Genga IO, Odada PK, Situbi PA, Oloo JA, 1996. Some observations on the biting behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus and their implications for malaria control. Exp Parasitol 82 : 306–315. [Google Scholar]
  36. Robert V, Awono-Ambene HP, Thioulouse J, 1998. Ecology of larval mosquitoes, with special reference to Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culcidae) in market-garden wells in urban Dakar, Senegal. J Med Entomol 35 : 948–955. [Google Scholar]
  37. Taye A, Hadis M, Adugna N, Tilahun D, Wirtz RA, 2005. Biting behavior and Plasmodium infection rates of Anopheles arabiensis from Sille, Ethiopia. Acta Trop 97 : 50–54. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 26 Sep 2006
  • Accepted : 05 Jun 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error