Volume 77, Issue 6_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


In two cross-sectional surveys carried out in the rural health district of Boromo, Burkina Faso, malaria infection was evaluated in 295 pregnant women in May 2003 and 288 pregnant women in December 2003. Malaria prevalence, all infection, was higher in December (32.2%) than in May (11.9%) ( < 0.0001). In both surveys primigravidae had a significantly higher risk of infection than multigravidae ( < 0.0001). Such risk decreased significantly and progressively with gestational age, the highest risk being during the first trimester. Women who had not attended the antenatal clinic had also a significantly higher risk of malaria infection. Despite the high antenatal clinic attendance and the use (or misuse) of chloroquine chemoprophylaxis, malaria remains an important problem for pregnant women living in the rural district of Boromo. This requires a major effort by the health authorities to guarantee all pregnant women have access to and use preventive measures.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Nosten F, ter Kuile F, Maelankiri L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nopdonrattakoon L, Tangkitchot S, Boudreau E, Bunnag D, White NJ, 1994. Mefloquine prophylaxis prevents malaria during pregnancy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Infect Dis 169 : 595–603. [Google Scholar]
  2. Bouvier P, Breslow N, Doumbo O, Robert CF, Picquet M, Mauris A, Dolo A, Dembele HK, Delley V, Rougemont A, 1997. Seasonality, malaria, and impact of prophylaxis in a West African village. II. Effect on birthweight. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56 : 384–389. [Google Scholar]
  3. Menendez C, Ordi J, Ismail MR, Ventura PJ, Aponte JJ, Kahigwa E, Font F, Alonso PL, 2000. The impact of placental malaria on gestational age and birth weight. J Infect Dis 181 : 1740–1745. [Google Scholar]
  4. van Geertruyden JP, Thomas F, Erhart A, D’Alessandro U, 2004. The contribution of malaria in pregnancy to perinatal mortality. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (Suppl 2): 35–40. [Google Scholar]
  5. Newman RD, Parise ME, Slutsker L, Nahlen B, Steketee RW, 2003. Safety, efficacy and determinants of effectiveness of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy: implications for prevention programmes in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 8 : 488–506. [Google Scholar]
  6. Kramer MS, 1987. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ 65 : 663–737. [Google Scholar]
  7. McCormick MC, 1985. The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity. N Engl J Med 312 : 82–90. [Google Scholar]
  8. Murphy SC, Breman JG, 2001. Gaps in the childhood malaria burden in Africa: cerebral malaria, neurological sequelae, anemia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, and complications of pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 57–67. [Google Scholar]
  9. Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, Parise ME, Menendez C, 2001. The burden of malaria in pregnancy in malaria-endemic areas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 28–35. [Google Scholar]
  10. Gilles HM, Lawson JB, Sibelas M, Voller A, Allan N, 1969. Malaria, anaemia and pregnancy. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 63 : 245–263. [Google Scholar]
  11. Brabin BJ, Brabin LR, Sapau J, Alpers MP, 1988. A longitudinal study of splenomegaly in pregnancy in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82 : 677– 681. [Google Scholar]
  12. Brabin BJ, Ginny M, Sapau J, Galme K, Paino J, 1990. Consequences of maternal anaemia on the outcome of pregnancy in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 84 : 11–24. [Google Scholar]
  13. Menendez C, 1995. Malaria during pregnancy: a priority area of malaria research and control. Parasitol Today 11 : 178–183. [Google Scholar]
  14. Keuter M, van Eijk A, Hoogstrate M, Raasveld M, van de Ree M, Ngwawe WA, Watkins WM, Were JBO, Brandling-Bennett AD, 1990. Comparison of chloroquine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, and chlorproguanil and dapsone as treatment for falciparum malaria in pregnant and non-pregnant women, Kakamega district, Kenya. BMJ 301 : 466–470. [Google Scholar]
  15. Bulmer JN, Rasheed FN, Francis N, Morrison L, Greenwood BM, 1993. Placental malaria. I. Pathological classification. Histopathology 22 : 211–218. [Google Scholar]
  16. Mutabingwa TK, 1994. Malaria in pregnancy: epidemiology, pathophysiology and control options. Acta Trop 57 : 239–254. [Google Scholar]
  17. van Geertruyden JP, Ntakirutimana D, Erhart A, Rwagacondo C, Kabano A, D’Alessandro U, 2005. Malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in six Rwandan districts. Trop Med Int Health 10 : 681–688. [Google Scholar]
  18. Kortman HFCM, 1972. Malaria and pregnancy. M.D. thesis. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Drukkerij Elinkwijk, Utrecht.
  19. McGregor IA, 1984. Epidemiology, malaria and pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33 : 517–525. [Google Scholar]
  20. Jelliffe EFP, 1968. Low birth-weight and malarial infection of the placenta. Bull World Health Organ 38 : 69–78. [Google Scholar]
  21. McGregor IA, Wilson ME, Billewicz WZ, 1983. Malaria infection of the placenta in The Gambia, West Africa; its incidence and relationship to stillbirth, birthweight and placental weight. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77 : 232–244. [Google Scholar]
  22. Diagne N, Rogier C, Cisse B, Trape JF, 1997. Incidence of clinical malaria in pregnant women exposed to intense perennial transmission. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 166–170. [Google Scholar]
  23. Brabin BJ, 1991. The risks and severity of malaria in pregnant women. Applied Field Research in Malaria Reports No 1. Geneva: TDR/WHO.
  24. Ministère de la Santé du Burkina Faso, Direction des études et de la planification, (2005). Annuaire statistique 2004.
  25. Talisuna AO, Bloland P, D’Alessandro U, 2004. History, dynamics, and public health importance of malaria parasite resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 17 : 235–254. [Google Scholar]
  26. Gansané A, Nebié I, Diarra A, Ouédraogo A, Soulama I, Bougouma E, Tiono A, Dermé A, Konaté A, Sirima B, 2005. Efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso. Acta Trop 95S : S335–S336. [Google Scholar]
  27. Sirima SB, Sawadogo R, Moran AC, Konate A, Diarra A, Yameogo M, Parise ME, Newman RD, 2003. Failure of a chloroquine prophylaxis program to adequately prevent malaria during pregnancy in Koupéla District, Burkina Faso. Clin Infect Dis 36 : 1374–1382. [Google Scholar]
  28. Brabin BJ, 1983. An analysis of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. Bull World Health Organ 61 : 1005–1016. [Google Scholar]
  29. Steketee RW, Brandling-Bennett AD, Kaseje DC, Schwartz IK, Churchill FC, 1987. In vivo response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Siaya District, Kenya. Bull World Health Organ 65 : 885–890. [Google Scholar]
  30. World Health Organization, 2006. Malaria in pregnancy: guidelines for measuring key monitoring and evaluation indicators. Final Draft.
  31. Guyatt HL, Snow RW. 2001. The epidemiology and burden of Plasmodium falciparum-related anemia among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 (1–2 Suppl): 36–44. [Google Scholar]
  32. Rogerson SJ, van den Broek NR, Chaluluka E, Qongwane C, Mhango CG, Molyneux ME, 2000. Malaria and anemia in antenatal women in Blantyre, Malawi: a twelve-month survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 335–340. [Google Scholar]
  33. Miaffo C, Some F, Kouyate B, Jahn A, Mueller O, 2004. Malaria and anemia prevention in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 27;4(1):18. [Google Scholar]
  34. Bouvier P, Doumbo O, Breslow N, Robert CF, Mauris A, Picquet M, Kouriba B, Dembele HK, Delley V, Rougemont A, 1997. Seasonality, malaria, and impact of prophylaxis in a West African village I. Effect of anemia in pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56 : 378–383. [Google Scholar]
  35. Dicko A, Mantel C, Thera MA, Doumbia S, Diallo M, Diakite M, Sagara I, Doumbo OK, 2003. Risk factors for malaria infection and anemia for pregnant women in the Sahel area of Bandiagara, Mali. Acta Trop 89 : 17–23. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Aug 2006
  • Accepted : 29 Jan 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error