1921
Volume 77, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The Amazon region of Iquitos, Peru is hypoendemic for and . There is limited information regarding the epidemiology of malaria during pregnancy in this region. Passive surveillance for clinical malaria among pregnant women was conducted in eight health posts in 2004 and 2005. Community-based active surveillance was conducted to determine the incidence of malarial infection among pregnant women in the community of Zungarococha in 2004 and 2005. Passive surveillance demonstrated that pregnant women had a prevalence of clinical malaria of 7.5% in 2004 and 6.6% in 2005 compared with 20.6% and 22.4% of the total population. Active surveillance showed that pregnant women were 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.32–3.95, = 0.004) times more likely to have a infection compared with non-pregnant women. This study demonstrated that because of detection bias, passive surveillance underestimates the burden of malarial infection during pregnancy, and that subclinical malarial infections may occur frequently among pregnant women in this region. Furthermore, pregnant women in this low-transmission and –dominant setting, experience an increased risk for infection, but not infection.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.451
2007-09-01
2017-12-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/77/3/0770451.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.451&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Menendez C, 1995. Malaria during pregnancy: a priority area of malaria research and control. Parasitol Today 11 : 178–183.
  2. Okoko BJ, Enwere G, Ota MO, 2003. The epidemiology and consequences of maternal malaria: a review of immunological basis. Acta Trop 87 : 193–205.
  3. Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, Parise ME, Menendez C, 2001. The burden of malaria in pregnancy in malaria-endemic areas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 28–35.
  4. McGregor IA, 1984. Epidemiology, malaria and pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33 : 517–525.
  5. McGregor IA, Wilson ME, Billewicz WZ, 1983. Malaria infection of the placenta in The Gambia, west Africa; its incidence and relationship to stillbirth, birthweight and placental weight. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77 : 232–244.
  6. Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Slutsker L, Heymann DL, Breman JG, 1996. The problem of malaria and malaria control in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 2–7.
  7. Cot M, Deloron P, 2003. Malaria prevention strategies. Br Med Bull 67 : 137–148.
  8. Brabin B, 1991. An assessment of low birthweight risk in primiparae as an indicator of malaria control in pregnancy. Int J Epidemiol 20 : 276–283.
  9. Nosten F, McGready R, Simpson JA, Thwai KL, Balkan S, Cho T, Hkirijaroen L, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, 1999. Effects of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnancy. Lancet 354 : 546–549.
  10. Nosten, F, ter Kuile F, Maelankirri L, Decludt B, White NJ, 1991. Malaria during pregnancy in an area of unstable endemicity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 : 424–429.
  11. Luxemburger C, McGready R, Kham A, Morison L, Cho T, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, White NJ, Nosten F, 2001. Effects of malaria during pregnancy on infant mortality in an area of low malaria transmission. Am J Epidemiol 154 : 459–465.
  12. Singh N, Mehra RK, Srivastava N, 2001. Malaria during pregnancy and infancy, in an area of intense malaria transmission in central India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95 : 19–29.
  13. Singh N, Saxena A, Shrivastava R, 2003. Placental Plasmodium vivax infection and congenital malaria in central India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97 : 875–878.
  14. Aramburu GJ, Ramal AC, Witzig R, 1999. Malaria reemergence in the Peruvian Amazon region. Emerg Infect Dis 5 : 209–215.
  15. Roshanravan B, Kari E, Gilman RH, Cabrera L, Lee E, Metcalfe J, Calderon M, Lescano AG, Montenegro SH, Calampa C, Vinetz JM, 2003. Endemic malaria in the Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 : 45–52.
  16. Roper MH, Torres RS, Goicochea CG, Andersen EM, Guarda JS, Calampa C, Hightower AW, Magill AJ, 2000. The epidemiology of malaria in an epidemic area of the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 247–256.
  17. Branch O, Casapia WM, Gamboa DV, Hernandez JN, Alava FF, Roncal N, Alvarez E, Perez EJ, Gotuzzo E, 2005. Clustered local transmission and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria infections in a recently emerged, hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon community. Malar J 4 : 27.
  18. Shulman CE, Marshall T, Dorman EK, Bulmer JN, Cutts F, Peshu N, Marsh K, 2001. Malaria in pregnancy: adverse effects on haemoglobin levels and birthweight in primigravidae and multigravidae. Trop Med Int Health 6 : 770–778.
  19. van Geertruyden JP, Thomas F, Erhart A, D’Alessandro U, 2004. The contribution of malaria in pregnancy to perinatal mortality. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 35–40.
  20. Bouyou-Akotet MK, Ionete-Collard DE, Mabika-Manfoumbi M, Kendjo E, Matsiegui PB, Mavoungou E, Kombila M, 2003. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon. Malar J 2 : 18.
  21. Watkinson M, Rushton DI, 1983. Plasmodial pigmentation of placenta and outcome of pregnancy in West African mothers. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 287 : 251–254.
  22. Matteelli A, Donato F, Shein A, Muchi JA, Leopardi O, Astori L, Carosi G, 1994. Malaria and anaemia in pregnant women in urban Zanzibar, Tanzania. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88 : 475–483.
  23. Matteelli A, Caligaris S, Castelli F, Carosi G, 1997. The placenta and malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91 : 803–810.
  24. Walter PR, Garin Y, Blot P, 1982. Placental pathologic changes in malaria. A histologic and ultrastructural study. Am J Pathol 109 : 330–342.
  25. Rogerson SJ, Mkundika P, Kanjala MK, 2003. Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria at delivery: comparison of blood film preparation methods and of blood films with histology. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 1370–1374.
  26. Fried M, Duffy PE, 1996. Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum to chondroitin sulfate A in the human placenta. Science 272 : 1502–1504.
  27. Duffy PE, Fried M, 1999. Malaria during pregnancy: parasites, antibodies and chondroitin sulphate A. Biochem Soc Trans 27 : 478–482.
  28. Rogerson SJ, Chaiyaroj SC, Ng K, Reeder JC, Brown GV, 1995. Chondroitin sulfate A is a cell surface receptor for Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. J Exp Med 182 : 15–20.
  29. Martinez-Espinosa F, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, Alecrim WD, 2004. Malaria during pregnancy in a reference centre from the Brazilian Amazon: unexpected increase in the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99 : 19–21.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.451
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.451
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 10 Nov 2006
  • Accepted : 01 May 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error