Volume 77, Issue 6_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK) is committed to the development of a safe and effective malaria vaccine. Its research program in this field was initiated in 1984 and has been continuously active to this day, making it unparalleled within the vaccine industry. Although it works in partnerships with several leading organizations from the public sector, this effort has required GSK to invest major financial and human resource commitments, and its partners rely heavily on the company’s global infrastructure and expertise in research, advanced clinical development, regulatory, large-scale manufacturing, and commercialization. Through GSK’s pioneering business model and working in partnership with global vaccine funding agencies, the company is committed to seeing that, once approved, a safe and effective malaria vaccine will be available to everyone that needs it.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Clyde DF, Most H, McCarthy V, Vanderberg JP, 1973. Immunization of man against sporozoite-induced falciparum malaria. Am J Med Sci 266 : 169–177.
  2. Nussenzweig RS, Vanderberg J, Most H, Orton C, 1967. Protective immunity produced by the injection of X-irradiated sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei. Nature 216 : 160–162.
  3. Nussenzweig RS, Vanderberg J, Most H, Orton C, 1970. Immunity in simian malaria induced by irradiated sporozoites. J Parasitol 56 : 350–351.
  4. Potocnjak P, Yoshida N, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V, 1980. Monovalent fragments (Fab) of monoclonal antibodies to a sporozoite surface antigen (Pb44) protect mice against malarial infection. J Exp Med 151 : 1504–1513.
  5. Zavala F, Tam JP, Hollingdale MR, Cochrane AH, Quakyi I, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V, 1985. Rationale for development of a synthetic vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Science 228 : 1436–1440.
  6. Dame JB, Williams JL, McCutchan TF, Weber JL, Wirtz RA, Hockmeyer WT, Maloy WL, Haynes JD, Schneider I, Roberts D, Sanders GS, Reddy EP, Diggs CL, Miller LH, 1984. Structure of the gene encoding the immunodominant surface antigen on the sporozoite of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Science 225 : 593–599.
  7. Ballou WR, Rothbard J, Wirtz RA, Gordon DM, Williams JS, Gore RW, Schneider I, Hollingdale MR, Beaudoin RL, Maloy WL, Miller LH, Hockmeyer WT, 1985. Immunogenicity of synthetic peptides from the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum. Science 228 : 996–999.
  8. Young JF, Hockmeyer WT, Gross M, Ballou WR, Wirtz RA, Trosper JH, Beaudoin RL, Hollingdale MR, Miller LH, Diggs CL, Rosenberg M, 1985. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein in Escherichia coli for potential use in a human malaria vaccine. Science 228 : 958–962.
  9. Hockmeyer WT, Ballou WR, Young JF, 1986. Recent efforts in the development of a sporozoite vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum. Lerner RA, Chanoc RM, Brown F, eds. Vaccine 86: Molecular and Chemical Basis of Resistance to Parasitic, Bacterial, and Viral Diseases. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Laboratory.
  10. Wirtz RA, Ballou WR, Schneider I, Chedid L, Young JF, Hollingdale M, Diggs CL, Hockmeyer WT, 1987. Plasmodium falciparum: immunogenicity of circumsporozoite protein constructs produced in Escherichia coli. Exp Parasit 63 : 166–172.
  11. Hollingdale MR, Ballou WR, Aley SB, Young JF, Pancake S, Miller LH, Hockmeyer WT, 1987. Plasmodium falciparum: elicitation by peptides and recombinant circumsporozoite proteins of circulating mouse antibodies inhibiting sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cells. Exp Parasit 63 : 345–351.
  12. Young JF, Gross M, Ballou WR, Hockmeyer WT, 1987. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum antigens in Escherichia coli for the development of a human malaria vaccine. Kohler H, Lo-Verde PT, eds. Vaccines: New Concepts and Developments. Proceedings of the 10th International Convocation on Immunology. Essex, UK: Longman Scientific and Technical, 251–260.
  13. Young JF, Ballou WR, Hockmeyer WT, 1987. Developing a human malaria sporozoite vaccine. Microbial Pathogenisis 2 : 237–240.
  14. Ballou WR, Hoffman SL, Sherwood JA, Hollingdale MR, Neva FA, Hockmeyer WT, Gordon DM, Scneider I, Wirtz RA, Young JF, Wasserman GF, Reeve P, Diggs CL, Chulay JD, 1987. Safety and efficacy of a recombinant DNA Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine. Lancet 1 : 1277–1281.
  15. Sherwood JA, Oster CN, Adoya-Adoya M, Beier JC, Gachihi GS, Nyakundi PM, Ballou WR, Brandling-Bennet AD, Schwartz IK, Were JBO, Helseth DC, Roberts CR, Young JF, Reeve P, Chulay JD, 1991. Safety and immunogenicity of a Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine: boosting of antibody response in a population with prior natural exposure. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 : 336–340.
  16. Gordon DM, Cosgriff TM, Schneider I, Wasserman GF, Majarian WR, Hollingdale MR, 1990. Safety and immunogenicity of a Plasmodium vivax sporozoite vaccine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42 : 527–531.
  17. Collins WE, Nussenzweig RS, Ballou WR, Ruebush TK 2nd, Nardin EH, Chulay JD, Majarian WR, Young JF, Wasserman GF, Bathurst I, Gibson HL, Barr PJ, Hoffman SL, Wasserman SS, Broderson JR, Skinner JC, Procell PM, Filipski VK, Wilson CL, 1989. Immunization of Saimiri sciureus boliviensis with recombinant vaccines based on the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium vivax. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40 : 455–464.
  18. Gordon DM, Davis DR, Lee M, Lambros C, Harrison BA, Samuel R, Campbell GH, Jegathesan M, Selvarajan K, Lewis GE Jr, 1991. Significance of circumsporozoite-specific antibody in the natural transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae in an aboriginal (Orang Asli) population of central peninsula Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 : 49–56.
  19. Brown AE, Webster HK, Krinchai K, Gordon DM, Wirtz RA, Permpanich B, 1991. Characteristics of natural antibody responses to the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium vivax. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 : 21–27.
  20. Rickman LS, Gordon DM, Wistar R Jr, Krzych U, Gross M, Hollingdale MR, Egan JE, Chulay JD, Hoffman SL, 1991. Use of adjuvant containing mycobacterial cell-wall skeleton, monophosphoryl lipid A, and squalane in malaria circumsporozoite protein vaccine. Lancet 337 : 998–1001.
  21. Fries LF, Gordon DM, Richards RL, Egan JE, Hollingdale MR, Gross M, Silverman C, Alving CR, 1992. Liposomal malaria vaccine in humans: a safe and potent adjuvant strategy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89 : 358–362.
  22. Schofield L, Ferreira A, Altszuler R, Nussenzweig V, Nussenzweig RS, 1987. Interferon-gamma inhibits the intrahepatocytic development of malaria parasites in vitro. J Immunol 139 : 2020–2025.
  23. Egan JE, Weber JL, Ballou WR, Hollingdale MR, Majarian WR, Gordon DM, Maloy WL, Hoffman SL, Wirtz RA, Schneider I, Woollett GR, Young JF, Hockmeyer WT, 1987. Efficacy of murine malaria sporozoite vaccines: implications for human vaccine development. Science 236 : 453–456.
  24. Campbell JR, Paleologo FP, Franke ED, Ratiwayanto S, Hadiputranto H, Kurniawan L, Wistar R Jr, Hoffman SL, Annis BA, Wasserman G, Laughlin LW, 1988. Immune response of humans to the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum: limited T cell response to the immunodominant central repeat region. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39 : 232–235.
  25. Hoffman SL, Berzofsky JA, Isenbarger D, Zeltser E, Majarian WR, Gross M, Ballou WR, 1989. Immune response gene regulation of immunity to Plasmodium berghei sporozoites and circumsporozoite protein vaccines. Overcoming genetic restriction with whole organism and subunit vaccines. J Immunol 142 : 3581–3584.
  26. Malik A, Gross M, Ulrich T, Hoffman SL, 1993. Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein RLF by immunization with soluble recombinant protein without adjuvant. Infect Immun 61 : 5062–5066.
  27. Heppner DG, Gordon DM, Gross M, Wellde B, Leitner W, Krzych U, Schneider I, Wirtz RA, Richards RL, Trofa A, Hall T, Sadoff JC, Poerger P, Alving CR, Sylvester DR, Porter TG, Ballou WR, 1996. Safety, immunogencity and efficacy of Plasmodium falciparum repeatless circumsporozoite protein vaccine encapsulated in liposomes. J Infect Dis 174 : 361–366.
  28. Que JU, Cryz SJ, Ballou WR, Furer E, Gross M, Young JF, Wasserman GF, Loomis LD, Sadoff JC, 1988. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein conjugate vaccines: the effect of carrier selection on immunogenicity. Infec Immun 56 : 2645.
  29. Fries LF, Gordon DM, Schneider I, Beier JC, Long GW, Gross M, Que JU, Cryz SJ, Sadoff JC, 1992. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a Plasmodium falciparum vaccine comprising a circumsporozoite protein repeat region peptide conjugated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A. Infect Immun 60 : 1834–1839.
  30. Brown AE, Singharaj P, Webster HK, Pipithkul J, Gordon DM, Boslego JW, Krinchai K, Suarchawaratana P, Wongsrichanalai C, Ballou WR, Permpanich B, Kain KC, Hollingdale MR, Wittes J, Que JU, Gross M, Cryz SJ, Sadoff JC, 1994. Safety, immunogenicity and limited efficacy study of a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite vaccine in Thai soldiers. Vaccine 12 : 102.
  31. Sherwood JA, Copeland RS, Taylor KA, Abok K, Oloo AJ, Were JB, Strickland GT, Gordon DM, Ballou WR, Bales JD, Wirtz RA, Wittes J, Gross M, Que JU, Cryz SJ, Oster CN, Roberts CR, Sadoff JC, 1996. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite vaccine immunogencity and efficacy trial with natural challenge quantitation in an area of endemic human malaria of Kenya. Vaccine 14 : 817–827.
  32. Charoenvit Y, Sedegah M, Yuan LF, Gross M, Cole C, Bechara R, Leef MF, Robey FA, Lowell GH, Beaudoin RL, 1990. Active and passive immunization against Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites. Bull World Health Organ 68 : 26–32.
  33. Aronson NE, Silverman C, Wasserman GF, Kochan J, Hall BT, Esser K, Young JE, Chulay JD, 1991. Immunization of owl monkeys with a recombinant protein containing repeated epitopes of a Plasmodium falciparum glycophorin-binding protein. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 : 548–559.
  34. Ling IT, Ogun SA, Momin P, Richards RL, Garçon N, Cohen J, Ballou WR, Holder AA, 1997. Immunization against the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii using a recombinant protein with adjuvants developed for clinical use. Vaccine 15 : 1562–1567.
  35. Sadoff JC, Ballou WR, Baron LS, Majarian WR, Brey RN, Hockmeyer WT, Young JF, Cryz SJ, Ou J, Lowell GH, Chulay JD, 1988. Oral Salmonella typhimurium vaccine expressing circum-sporozoite protein protects against malaria. Science 240 : 336–338.
  36. Aggarwal A, Kumar S, Jaffe R, Hone D, Gross M, Sadoff J, 1990. Oral Salmonella: malaria circumsporozoite recombinants induce specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. J Exp Med 172 : 1083–1090.
  37. Rutgers T, Gordon D, Gatoye AM, Hollingdale M, Hockmeyer W, Rosenberg M, De Wilde M, 1988. Hepatitis B surface antigen as carrier matrix for the repetitive epitope of the circum-sporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum. Biotechnology (NY) 6 : 1065–1070.
  38. Vreden SGS, Verhave JP, Oettinger T, Sauerwein RW, Meuwissen JHET, 1991. Phase I clinical trial of a recombinant malaria vaccine consisting of the circumsporozoite repeat region of Plasmodium falciparum coupled to hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 : 533–538.
  39. Garçon N, Heppner DG, Cohen J, 2003. Development of RTS,S/AS02: a purified subunit-based malaria vaccine candidate formulated with a novel adjuvant. Expert Rev Vaccines 2 : 231–238.
  40. Gordon DM, McGovern TW, Krzych U, Cohen JC, Schneider I, LaChance R, Heppner DG, Hollingdale M, Slaoui M, Hauser P, Voet P, Sadoff JC, Ballou WR, 1995. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a recombinantly produced Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein/HBsAg subunit vaccine. J Inf Diseases 171 : 1576–1585.
  41. Stoute JA, Slaoui M, Heppner DG, Garçon N, Kester KE, Desmons P, Schwenk R, Van Hardenhove M, Wellde BT, Marchand M, Hall BT, Ockenhouse CF, Mormin P, White K, Magill A, Voet P, Golenda C, Glenn GM, Biernaux S, Krzych U, Prieels JP, Sadoff JC, Ballou WR, Cohen JC, 1997. A preliminary evaluation of a recombinant circumsporozoite protein malaria vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum. N Engl J Med 336 : 86–91.
  42. Stoute JA, Kester KE, Krzych U, Wellde BT, Hall T, White K, Glenn G, Ockenhouse CF, Garçon N, Schwenk R, Lanar DE, Momin P, Golenda C, Slaoui M, Wortmann G, Cohen J, Ballou WR, 1998. Long term efficacy and immune responses following immunization with the RTS,S malaria vaccine. J Infect Dis 178 : 1139–1144.
  43. Kester KE, McKinney DA, Tornieporth N, Ockenhouse CF, Heppner DG, Hall T, Krzych U, Delchambre M, Voss G, Dowler MG, Palensky J, Wittes JT, Cohen J, Ballou WR, 2001. Efficacy of recombinant circumsporozoite protein vaccine regimens against experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis 183 : 640–647.
  44. Schwenk R, Asher LV, Chalom I, Lanar D, Sun P, White K, Keil D, Kester KE, Stoute J, Heppner DG, Krzych U, 2003. Opsonization by antigen-specific antibodies as a mechanism of protective immunity induced by Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein-based vaccine. Parasite Immunol 25 : 17–25.
  45. Sun P, Schwenk R, White K, Stoute JA, Cohen J, Ballou WR, Voss G, Kester KE, Heppner DG, Krzych U, 2003. Protective immunity induced with malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is linked to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-gamma. J Immunol 171 : 6961–6967.
  46. Kester KE, McKinney DA, Tornieporth N, Ockenhouse CF, Heppner DG, Hall T, Wellde BT, White K, Sun P, Schwenk R, Krzych U, Delchambre M, Voss G, Gasser RA, Dowler MG, O’Brien M, Wittes J, Wirtz R, Cohen J, Ballou WR for the RTS,S Malaria Vaccine Evaluation Group, 2007. A phase IIa safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy bridging randomized study of a two-dose regimen of liquid and lyophilized formulations of the candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A in malaria-naïve adults. Vaccine 25 : 5359–5366.
  47. Doherty JF, Pinder M, Tornieporth N, Carton C, Vigneron L, Milligan P, Ballou WR, Kester KE, Voss G, Momin P, Greenwood BM, McAdam KPWJ, Cohen J, 1999. A Phase I safety and immunogenicity trial with the candidate malaria vaccine, RTS,S/SABAS2, in semi-immune adults in The Gambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 865–868.
  48. Bojang KA, Milligan PJM, Pinder M, Vigneron L, Alloueche A, Kester KE, Ballou WR, Conway DC, Reece WH, Gothard P, Yamuah L, Delchambre M, Voss G, Greenwood BM, Hill AVS, McAdam KP, Tornieporth N, Cohen JD, Doherty T, for the RTS,S Malaria Vaccine Trial Team, 2001. Efficacy of RTS,S/AS02 malaria vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum infection in semi-immune adult men in The Gambia: a randomised trial. Lancet 358 : 1927–1934.
  49. Pinder M, Reece WH, Plebanski M, Akinwunmi P, Flanagan KL, Lee EA, Doherty T, Milligan P, Jaye A, Tornieporth N, Ballou R, McAdam KP, Cohen J, Hill AV, 2004. Cellular immunity induced by the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS02, in semi-immune adults in The Gambia. Clin Exp Immunol 135 : 286–293.
  50. Alloueche A, Milligan P, Conway DJ, Pinder M, Bojang K, Doherty T, Tornieporth N, Cohen J, Greenwood BM, 2003. Protective efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02 Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine is not strain specific. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 97–101.
  51. Reece WH, Pinder M, Gothard PK, Milligan P, Bojang K, Doherty T, Plebanski M, Akinwunmi P, Everaere S, Watkins KR, Voss G, Tornieporth N, Alloueche A, Greenwood BM, Kester KE, McAdam KP, Cohen J, Hill AV, 2004. A CD4(+) T-cell immune response to a conserved epitope in the circum-sporozoite protein correlates with protection from natural Plasmodium falciparum infection and disease. Nat Med 10 : 406–410.
  52. Macete E, Aponte JJ, Guinovart C, Macete E, Aponte JJ, Guinovart C, Sacarlal J, Ofori-Anyinam O, Mandomando I, Espasa M, Bevilacqua C, Leach A, Dubois MC, Heppner DG, Tello L, Milman J, Cohen J, Dubovsky F, Tornieporth N, Thompson R, Alonso PL, 2007. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicty of the RTS,S/AS02A candidate malaria vaccine in children aged 1 to 4 years in Mozambique. Trop Med Int Health 12 : 37–46.
  53. Bojang KA, Olodude F, Pinder M, Ofori-Anyinam O, Vigneron L, Fitzpatrick S, Njie F, Kassanga A, Leach A, Milman J, Rabinovich R, McAdam KPWJ, Kester KE, Heppner DG, Cohen JD, Tornieporth N, Milligan PJM, 2005. Safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS02A candidate malaria vaccine in Gambian children. Vaccine 23 : 4148–4157.
  54. Alonso PL, Sacarlal J, Aponte JJ, Leach A, Macete E, Milman J, Mandomando I, Spiessens B, Guinovart C, Espasa M, Bassat Q, Aide P, Ofori-Anyinam O, Navia MN, Corachan S, Ceuppens M, Dubois MC, Demoitié MA, Dubovsky F, Menéndez C, Tornieporth N, Ballou WR, Thompson R, Cohen J, 2004. Efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02A vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum infection and disease in young African children: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 364 : 1411–1420.
  55. Alonso PL, Sacarlal J, Aponte JJ, Leach A, Macete E, Aide P, Sigauque B, Milman J, Mandomando I, Bassat Q, Guinovart C, Espasa M, Corachan S, Lievens M, Navia MM, Dubois MC, Menendez C, Dubovsky F, Cohen J, Thompson R, Ballou WR, 2005. Duration of protection with RTS,S/AS02A malaria vaccine in prevention of Plasmodium falciparum disease in Mozambican children: single-blind extended follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 366 : 2012–2018.
  56. Stewart VA, Walsh DS, McGrath SM, Kester KE, Cummings JF, Voss G, Delchambre M, Garçon N, Cohen JD, Heppner DG, 2006. Cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in a multi-formulation comparator trial of the anti-falciparum malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S in rhesus macaques. Vaccine 24 : 6493–6502.
  57. Stewart VA, McGrath SM, Walsh DS, Davis S, Hess AS, Ware LA, Kester KE, Cummings JF, Burge JR, Voss G, Delchambre M, Garçon N, Tang DB, Cohen JD, Heppner DG, 2006. Pre-clinical evaluation of new adjuvant formulations to improve the immunogenicity of the malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A. Vaccine 24 : 6483–6492.
  58. Walsh DS, Pichyangkul S, Gettayacamin M, Tongtawe P, Siegrist CA, Hansukjariya P, Kester KE, Holland CA, Voss G, Cohen J, Stewart AV, Miller RS, Ballou WR, Heppner DG Jr, 2004. Safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/TRAP malaria vaccine, formulated in the AS02A adjuvant system, in infant rhesus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 499–509.
  59. Moelans II, Cohen J, Marchand M, Molitor C, de Wilde P, van Pelt JF, Hollingdale MR, Roeffen WF, Eling WM, Atkinson CT, Aikawaf M, Schoenmakers JGG, Konings RNH, 1995. Induction of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite-neutralizing antibodies upon vaccination with recombinant Pfs16 vaccinia virus and/or recombinant Pfs16 protein produced in yeast. Mol Biochem Parasitol 72 : 179–192.
  60. Ockenhouse CF, Angov E, Kester KE, Diggs C, Soisson L, Cummings JF, Stewart AV, Palmer DR, Mahajan B, Krzych U, Tornieporth N, Delchambre M, Vanhandenhove M, Ofori-Anyinam O, Cohen J, Lyon JA, Heppner DG; MSP-1 Working Group, 2006. Phase I safety and immunogenicity trial of FMP1/AS02A, a Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1 asexual blood stage vaccine. Vaccine 24 : 3009–3017.
  61. Withers MR, McKinney D, Ogutu BR, Waitumbi JN, Milman JB, Apollo OJ, Allen OG, Tucker K, Soisson LA, Diggs C, Leach A, Wittes J, Dubovsky F, Stewart VA, Remich SA, Cohen J, Ballou WR, Holland CA, Lyon JA, Angov E, Stoute JA, Martin SK, Heppner DG; for the MSP-1 Malaria Vaccine Working Group, 2006. Safety and reactogenicity of an MSP-1 malaria vaccine candidate: A randomized phase Ib dose-escalation trial in Kenyan children. PLoS Clin Trials 24 : e32.
  62. Polhemus ME, Magill AJ, Cummings JF, Kester KE, Ocken-house CF, Lanar DE, Dutta S, Barbosa A, Soisson L, Diggs CL, Robinson SA, Haynes JD, Stewart VA, Ware LA, Brando C, Krzych U, Bowden RA, Cohen JD, Dubois MC, Ofori-Anyinam O, De-Kock E, Ballou WR, Heppner DG, 2007. Phase I dose escalation safety and immunogenicity trial of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane protein (AMA-1) FMP2.1, adjuvated with AS02A, in malaria-naive adults at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Vaccine 25 : 4203–4212.
  63. Angov E, Aufiero BM, Turgeon AM, Van Handenhove M, Ockenhouse CF, Kester KE, Walsh DS, McBride JS, Dubois MC, Cohen J, Haynes JD, Eckels KH, Heppner DG, Ballou WR, Diggs CL, Lyon JA, 2003. Development and pre-clinical analysis of a Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1(42) malaria vaccine. Mol Biochem Parasitol 128 : 195–204.
  64. Pichyangkul S, Gettayacamin M, Miller S, Lyon JA, Angov E, Tongtawe P, Ruble D, Heppner DG, Kester KE, Ballou WR, Diggs CL, Voss G, Cohen JD, Walsh DS, 2004. Pre-clinical evaluation of the malaria vaccine candidate P. falciparum MSP1-42 formulated with novel adjuvants or with alum. Vaccine 22 : 3831–3840.
  65. Wang R, Epstein J, Charoenvit Y, Baraceros FM, Rahardjo N, Gay T, Banania JG, Chattopadhyay R, de la Vega P, Richie TL, Tornieporth N, Doolan DL, Kester KE, Heppner DG, Norman J, Carucci DJ, Cohen JD, Hoffman SL, 2004. Induction in humans of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell and antibody responses by sequential immunization with malaria DNA and recombinant protein. J Immunol 172 : 5561–5569.
  66. Epstein JE, Charoenvit Y, Kester KE, Wang R, Newcomer R, Fitzpatrick S, Richie TL, Tornieporth N, Heppner DG, Ockenhouse C, Majam V, Holland C, Abot E, Ganeshan H, Berzins M, Jones T, Freydberg CN, Ng J, Norman J, Carucci DJ, Cohen J, Hoffman SL, 2004. Safety, tolerability, and antibody responses in humans after sequential immunization with a PfCSP DNA vaccine followed by the recombinant protein vaccine RTS,S/AS02A. Vaccine 22 : 1592–1603.
  67. Dunachie SJ, Walther M, Vuola JM, Webster DP, Keating SM, Berthoud T, Andrews L, Bejon P, Poulton I, Butcher G, Watkins K, Sinden RE, Leach A, Moris P, Tornieporth N, Schneider J, Dubovsky F, Tierney E, Williams J, Heppner DG, Gilbert SC, Cohen J, Hill AV, 2006. A clinical trial of prime-boost immunisation with the candidate malaria vaccines RTS,S/AS02A and MVA-CS. Vaccine 24 : 2850–2859.
  68. Heppner DG Jr, Kester KE, Ockenhouse CF, Tornieporth N, Ofori O, Lyon JA, Stewart VA, Dubois P, Lanar DE, Krzych U, Moris P, Angov E, Cummings JF, Leach A, Hall BT, Dutta S, Schwenk R, Hillier C, Barbosa A, Ware LA, Nair L, Darko CA, Withers MR, Ogutu B, Polhemus ME, Fukuda M, Pichyangkul S, Gettyacamin M, Diggs C, Soisson L, Milman J, Dubois MC, Garcon N, Tucker K, Wittes J, Plowe CV, Thera MA, Duombo OK, Pau MG, Goudsmit J, Ballou WR, Cohen J, 2004. Towards an RTS,S-based, multi-stage, multi-antigen vaccine against falciparum malaria: progress at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Vaccine 23 : 2243–2250.
  69. Stewart VA, McGrath SM, Dubois PM, Pau MG, Mettens P, Shott J, Cobb M, Burge JR, Larson D, Ware LA, Demoitié MA, Weverling GJ, Bayat B, Custers JH, Dubois MC, Cohen J, Goudsmit J, Heppner DG, 2007. Priming with an adenovirus 35-CS vaccine followed by RTS,S/AS01B boosting significantly improves immunogenicity to P. falciparum CS over either malaria vaccine alone. Infect Immun 75 : 2283–2290.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Mar 2007
  • Accepted : 28 Mar 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error