Volume 77, Issue 6_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


At six sites in western Kenya, we explored the presence of immature stages in treeholes. larvae were found in 19 species, 13 of which are exotic. The most common exotic species were , and . In Kisumu city, longitudinal assessments of 10 flamboyant trees showed repeated presence of s.s. in treeholes with water. Production of larvae did not correlate with habitat volume but with habitat height, showing a strong but statistically insignificant negative correlation. During a dry season, eggs recovered by rinsing dry treeholes hatched into 2.5 ± 3.06 and 7.9 ± 8.2 larvae. In cage experiments, s.s. laid more eggs in water originating from treeholes than in distilled or lake water, implying preference for ovipositing in this habitat. Our findings indicate that treeholes represent a hitherto unrecognized habitat for malaria vectors, which needs further studies.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM, 1997. Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277 : 494–499. [Google Scholar]
  2. Vitousek PM, D’Antonio CM, Loope LL, Westbrooks R, 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am Sci 84 : 468–478. [Google Scholar]
  3. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, A. BF, 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10 : 689–710. [Google Scholar]
  4. Corvalan CF, Hales S, McMichael AJ, Butler C, Campbell-Lendrum D, Confalonieri U, Leitner K, Lewis N, Patz J, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Health Synthesis. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  5. Lounibos LP, 2002. Invasions by insect vectors of human disease. Annu Rev Entomol 47 : 233–266. [Google Scholar]
  6. Soper FL, Wilson DB, 1943. Anopheles gambiae in Brazil: 1930 to 1940. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation.
  7. Vilà M, Williamson M, Lonsdale M, 2004. Competition experiments on alien weeds with crops: lessons for measuring plant invasion impact? Biol Invasions 6 : 59–69. [Google Scholar]
  8. Madon MB, Mulla MS, Shaw MW, Kluh S, Hazelrigg JE, 2002. Introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in southern California and potential for its establishment. J Vector Ecol 27 : 149–154. [Google Scholar]
  9. Minakawa N, Sonye G, Mogi M, Yan G, 2004. Habitat characteristics of Anopheles gambiae s.s. larvae in a Kenyan highland. Med Vet Entomol 18 : 301–305. [Google Scholar]
  10. Lounibos LP, 1981. Habitat segregation among African treehole mosquitoes. Ecol Entomol 6 : 129–154. [Google Scholar]
  11. Sota T, Mogi M, 1992. Interspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito eggs is correlated with habitat and egg size. Oecologia 90 : 353–358. [Google Scholar]
  12. Jenkins DW, Carpenter SJ, 1946. Ecology of the tree hole breeding mosquitoes of nearctic North America. Ecol Monogr 16 : 31–47. [Google Scholar]
  13. Carlson JC, Byrd BD, Omlin FX, 2004. Field assessments in western Kenya link malaria vectors to environmentally disturbed habitats during the dry season. BMC Public Health 4 : 33. [Google Scholar]
  14. Kitching RL, 1971. An ecological study of water-filled treeholes and their position in the woodland ecosystem. J Anim Ecol 40 : 281–302. [Google Scholar]
  15. Dale IR, Greenway PJ, 1961. Kenya Trees and Shrubs. Nairobi: Buchanan’s Kenya Estates.
  16. Dharani N, 2002. Field Guide to Common Trees and Shrubs of East Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers.
  17. Lanzaro GC, Touré YT, Carnahan J, Zheng L, Dolo G, Traoré S, Petrarca V, Vernick KD, Taylor CE, 1998. Complexities in the genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae populations in west Africa as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95 : 14260–14265. [Google Scholar]
  18. Geist HJ, Lambin EF, 2002. Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation. Bioscience 52 : 143–150. [Google Scholar]
  19. Lehmann T, Blackston CR, Besansky NJ, Escalante AA, Collins FH, Hawley WA, 2000. The Rift Valley complex as a barrier to gene flow for Anopheles gambiae in Kenya: the mtDNA perspective. J Hered 91 : 165–168. [Google Scholar]
  20. Beier JC, Copeland R, Oyaro C, Masinya A, Odago WO, Oduor S, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1990. Anopheles gambiae complex egg-stage survival in dry soil from larval development sites in western Kenya. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6 : 105–109. [Google Scholar]
  21. Shililu JI, Grueber WB, Mbogo CM, Githure JI, Riddiford LM, Beier JC, 2004. Development and survival of Anopheles gambiae eggs in drying soil: influence of the rate of drying, egg age, and soil type. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20 : 243–247. [Google Scholar]
  22. Zavortink TJ, 1970. The treehole Anopheles of the New World. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 5 : 1–35. [Google Scholar]
  23. Lounibos LP, 1979. Mosquitoes occurring in the axils of Pandanus rabaiensis Rendle on the Kenya toast. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 17 : 25–29. [Google Scholar]
  24. Gu W, Novak RJ, 2005. Habitat-based modeling of impacts of mosquito larval interventions on entomological inoculation rates, incidence, and prevalence of malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 : 546–552. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Oct 2006
  • Accepted : 08 Jan 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error