Volume 77, Issue 6_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


In 2006, the World Health Organization issued a position statement promoting the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for malaria vector control in epidemic and endemic areas. Other international organizations concurred because of the great burden of malaria and the relative ineffectiveness of current treatment and control strategies. Although the Stockholm Convention of 2001 targeted DDT as 1 of 12 persistent organic pollutants for phase-out and eventual elimination, it allowed a provision for its continued indoor use for disease vector control. Although DDT is a low-cost antimalarial tool, the possible adverse human health and environmental effects of exposure through IRS must be carefully weighed against the benefits to malaria control. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the use of DDT for IRS; its effective implementation in Africa; recommendations for deployment today, and training, monitoring, and research needs for effective and sustainable implementation. We consider the costs and cost effectiveness of IRS with DDT, alternative insecticides to DDT, and the importance of integrated vector control if toxicity, resistance, and other issues restrict its use.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Snow RW, Guerra CA, Noor AM, Myint HY, Hay SI, 2005. The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 434 : 214–217. [Google Scholar]
  2. Rowe AK, Rowe SY, Snow RW, Korenromp EL, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM, Stein C, Nahlen BL, Bryce J, Black RE, Steketee RW, 2006. The burden of malaria mortality among African children in the year 2000. J Infect Dis 35 : 691–704. [Google Scholar]
  3. Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ, 2006. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet 367 : 1747–1757. [Google Scholar]
  4. Abu-Raddad LJ, Patnaik P, Kublin JG, 2006. Dual infection with HIV and malaria fuels the spread of both diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Science 314 : 1603–1606. [Google Scholar]
  5. Sachs J, Malaney P, 2002. The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature 415 : 680–685. [Google Scholar]
  6. United Nations Millennium Project, 2005. Coming to Grips with Malaria in the New Millennium. London: Earthscan.
  7. Russell PF, 1946. Lessons in malariology from World War II. Am J Trop Med Hyg s1-26 (1): 5–13. [Google Scholar]
  8. Hays CW, 2000. The United States Army and malaria control in World War II. Parassitologia 42 : 47–52. [Google Scholar]
  9. Giglioli G, Wan-I C, Howell P, Marchant D, 1974. Malaria eradication under continental equatorial conditions in Guyana. West Indian Med J 23 : 25–34. [Google Scholar]
  10. Gabaldon A, 1983. Malaria eradication in Venezuela: doctrine, practice, and achievements after twenty years. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 : 203–211. [Google Scholar]
  11. Hemingway J, Ranson H, 2000. Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annu Rev Entomol 45 : 371–391. [Google Scholar]
  12. Metcalf RL, 1973. A century of DDT. J Agric Food Chem 21 : 511–519. [Google Scholar]
  13. Litsios S, 1996. The Tomorrow of Malaria. Wellington, New Zealand: Pacific Press.
  14. Roberts DR, Andre RG, 1994. Insecticide resistance issues in vector borne disease control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 (6 Suppl): 21–34. [Google Scholar]
  15. Magesa SM, Wilkes TJ, Mnzava AE, Njunwa KJ, Myamba J, Kivuyo MD, Hill N, Lines JD, Curtis CF, 1991. Trial of pyrethroid impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. Part 2. Effects on the malaria vector population. Acta Trop 49 : 97–108. [Google Scholar]
  16. International Development Advisory Board, 1956. Malaria Eradication: Report and Recommendations of the International Development Advisory Board. Washington, DC: International Cooperation Agency.
  17. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, 1980. Essential Malariology. London: Heinemann Medical Books Ltd.
  18. Sharma GK, 1987. A critical review of the impact of insecticidal spray under NMEP on malaria situation in India. J Commun Dis 19 : 187–290. [Google Scholar]
  19. Curtis CF, Mnzava AE, 2000. Comparison of house spraying and insecticide-treated nets for malaria control. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 1389–1400. [Google Scholar]
  20. Kouznetsov RL, 1977. Malaria control by application of indoor spraying of residual insecticides in tropical Africa and its impact on community health. Trop Doct 7 : 81–91. [Google Scholar]
  21. Mabaso LHM, Sharp B, Lengeler C, 2004. Historical review of malarial control in southern Africa with emphasis on the use of indoor residual house-spraying. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 846–856. [Google Scholar]
  22. Chapin G, Wasserstrom R, 1981. Agricultural production and malaria resurgence in Central America and India. Nature 293 : 181–185. [Google Scholar]
  23. Taverne J, 1999. DDT—to ban or not to ban? Parasitol Today 15 : 180–181. [Google Scholar]
  24. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 2001. Convention Text. Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme. Available at: http://www.pops.int/documents/convtext/convtext_en.pdf
  25. Curtis CF, 2002. Should the use of DDT be revived for malaria vector control? Biomedica (Bogota) 22 : 455–461. [Google Scholar]
  26. World Health Organization, 2006. Indoor Residual Spraying: Use of Indoor Residual Spraying for Scaling Up Global Malaria Control and Elimination. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_HTM_MAL_2006.1112_eng.pdf
  27. World Health Organization, 2006. Pesticides and Their Application for the Vectors and Pests of Public Health Importance. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_CDS_NTD_WHOPES_GCDPP_2006.1_eng.pdf
  28. Sharma SN, Shukla RP, Raghavendra K, Subbarao SK, 2005. Impact of DDT spraying on malaria transmission in Breilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Vec Borne Dis 42 : 54–60. [Google Scholar]
  29. Kouznetsov RL, 1977. Malaria control: benefits of past activities in tropical Africa. WHO Chron 31 : 98–101. [Google Scholar]
  30. Sharp BL, Kleinschmidt I, Streat E, Maharaj R, Barnes KI, Durrheim DN, Ridl FC, Morris N, Seocharan I, Kunene S, La Grange JJ, Mthembu JD, Maartens F, Martin CL, Barreto A, 2007. Seven years of regional malaria control collaboration–Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 : 42–47. [Google Scholar]
  31. Zaim M, 2002. Global Insecticide Use for Vector-Borne Disease Control. World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_CDS_WHOPES_GCDPP_2002.2.pdf
  32. Zaim M, Jambulingam P, 2004. Global Insecticide Use for Vector-Borne Disease Control. World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2004/WHO_CDS_WHOPES_GCDPP_2004.9.pdf
  33. Zaim M, Jambulingam P, 2007. Global Insecticide Use for Vector-Borne Disesae Control. World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). Geneva: World Health Organization.
  34. Chanon KE, Mendez-Galvan JF, Galindo-Jaramillo JM, Olguin-Bernal H, Borja-Aburto VH, 2003. Cooperative actions to achieve malaria control without the use of DDT. Int J Hyg Environ Health 206 : 387–394. [Google Scholar]
  35. Wolff MS, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Dubin N, Toniolo P, 2000. Risk of breast cancer and organochlorine exposure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9 : 271–277. [Google Scholar]
  36. Wurster CF Jr, Wurster DH, Strickland WN, 1965. Bird mortality after spraying for Dutch Elm disease with DDT. Science 148 : 90–91. [Google Scholar]
  37. Fry DM, 1995. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environ Health Perspect 103 (Suppl 7): 165–171. [Google Scholar]
  38. Lopez-Cervantes M, Torres-Sanchez L, Tobias A, Lopez-Carrillo L, 2004. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane burden and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ Health Perspect 112 : 207–214. [Google Scholar]
  39. Rogan WJ, Chen A, 2005. Health risks and benefits of bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT). Lancet 366 : 763–773. [Google Scholar]
  40. Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Fenster L, Johnson C, Barr DB, Jewell NP, 2006. In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Pediatrics 118 : 233–241. [Google Scholar]
  41. World Health Organization, 1973. Safe use of pesticides: twentieth report of the WHO expert committee on insecticides. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 513 : 1–54. [Google Scholar]
  42. Bouwman H, Cooppan RM, Botha MJ, Becker PJ, 1991. Serum levels of DDT and liver function of malaria control personnel. S Afr Med J 79 : 326–329. [Google Scholar]
  43. Yanez L, Ortiz-Perez D, Batres LE, Borja-Aburto VH, Diaz-Barriga F, 2002. Levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and deltamethrin in humans and environmental samples in malarious areas of Mexico. Environ Res 88 : 174–181. [Google Scholar]
  44. Giglioli G, 1972. Changes in the pattern of mortality following the eradication of hyperendemic malaria from a highly susceptible community. Bull World Health Organ 46 : 181–202. [Google Scholar]
  45. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, 1971. Insecticides and the control of vector-borne diseases. Bull World Health Organ 44 : 419–424. [Google Scholar]
  46. Warrell D, Giles H (eds), 2002. Essential Malariology. Fourth edition. London: Arnold.
  47. Battu R, Singh B, Kang BK, 2004. Contamination of liquid milk and butter with pesticide residues in the Ludhiana district of Punjab state, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 59 : 324–331. [Google Scholar]
  48. Sharma V, 2003. DDT: the fallen angel. Curr Sci 85 : 1532–1537. [Google Scholar]
  49. Sharp B, van Wyk P, Sikasote J, Banda P, Kleinschmidt I, 2002. Malaria control by residual insecticide spraying in Chingola and Chililabombwe, Copperbelt Province, Zambia. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 732–736. [Google Scholar]
  50. Coleman M, Sharp B, Seocharan I, Hemingway J, 2006. Developing an evidence-based decision support system for rational insecticide choice in the control of African malaria vectors. J Med Entomol 43 : 663–668. [Google Scholar]
  51. Coetzee M, van Wyk P, Booman M, Koekemoer LL, Hunt RH, 2006. Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes in a gold mining town in Ghana and implications for malaria control. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 99 : 400–403. [Google Scholar]
  52. Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Mthembu J, Weeto MM, Awolola TS, Coetzee M, 2003. Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadiannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa. Med Vet Entomol 17 : 417–422. [Google Scholar]
  53. Ranson H, Jensen B, Vulule JM, Wang X, Hemingway J, Collins FH, 2000. Identification of a point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Kenyan Anopheles gambiae associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Insect Mol Biol 9 : 491–497. [Google Scholar]
  54. Tia E, Akogbeto M, Koffi A, Toure M, Adja AM, Moussa K, Yao T, Carnevale P, Chandre E, 2006. Pyrethroid and DTT resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in five agricultural ecosystems from Cote-d’Ivoire [in French]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 99 : 278–282. [Google Scholar]
  55. Casimiro S, Coleman M, Mohloai P, Hemingway J, Sharp B, 2006. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Mozambique. J Med Entomol 43 : 267–275. [Google Scholar]
  56. Hargreaves K, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Hunt RH, Mthembu J, Coetzee M, 2000. Anopheles funestus resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in South Africa. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 181–189. [Google Scholar]
  57. Tripet F, Wright J, Cornel A, Fofana A, McAbee R, Meneses C, Reimer L, Slotman M, Thiemann T, Dolo G, Traore S, Lanzaro G, 2007. Longitudinal survey of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid (kdr) in Mali, West Africa, and evidence of its emergence in the Bamako form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 : 81–87. [Google Scholar]
  58. Yawson AE, McCall PJ, Wilson MD, Donnelly MJ, 2004. Species abundance and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in selected areas of Ghana and Burkina Faso. Med Vet Entomol 18 : 372–377. [Google Scholar]
  59. Stump AD, Atieli FK, Vulule JM, Besansky NJ, 2004. Dynamics of the pyrethroid knockdown resistance allele in western Kenyan populations of Anopheles gambiae in response to insecticide-treated bed net trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 591–596. [Google Scholar]
  60. Diabate A, Baldet T, Chandre F, Akoobeto M, Guiguemde TR, Darriet F, Brengues C, Guillet P, Hemingway J, Small GJ, Hougard JM, 2002. The role of agricultural use of insecticides in resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 : 617–622. [Google Scholar]
  61. Hemingway J, Hawkes NJ, McCarroll L, Ranson H, 2004. The molecular basis of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 34 : 653–665. [Google Scholar]
  62. Brooke BD, Kloke G, Hunt RH, Koekemoer LL, Temu EA, Taylor ME, Small G, Hemingway J, Coetzee M, 2001. Bioassay and biochemical analyses of insecticide resistance in southern African Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res 91 : 265–272. [Google Scholar]
  63. Henry MC, Assi SB, Rogier C, Dssou-Yuvo J, Chandre F, Guillet P, Carnevale P, 2005. Protective efficacy of lambdacyhalothrin treated nets in Anopheles Gambiae pyrethroid resistance areas of Cote D’Ivoire. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 : 859–864. [Google Scholar]
  64. Asidi AN, N’Guessan R, Hutchinson RA, Traoré-Lamizana M, Carnevale P, Curtis CF, 2004. Experimental hut comparisons of nets treated with carbamate or pyrethroid insecticides, washed or unwashed, against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol 18 : 134–140. [Google Scholar]
  65. Darriet F, N’guessan R, Koffi AA, Konan L, Doannio JM, Chandre F, Carnevale P, 2000. Impact of pyrethrin resistance on the efficacity of impregnated mosquito nets in the prevention of malaria: results of tests in experimental cases with deltamethrin SC. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 93 : 131–134. [Google Scholar]
  66. N’guessan R, Corbel V, Akogbéto M, Rowland M, 2007. Reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in pyrethroid resistance area. Benin Emerg Infect Dis 13 : 199–206. [Google Scholar]
  67. Rodríguez AD, Penilla RP, Rodríguez MH, Hemingway J, Trejo A, Hernández-Avila JE, 2006. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies. Salud Publica Mex 48 : 317–324. [Google Scholar]
  68. Curtis CF, Hill N, Kasim SK, 1993. Are there effective resistance management strategies for vectors of human disease? Biol J Linnean Soc 48 : 3–18. [Google Scholar]
  69. Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Lo TQ, Kamau L, Kolczak MS, Phillips-Howard PA, Mathenge EM, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, High-tower AW, Hawley WA, 2003. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6 (Supp 4): 16–22. [Google Scholar]
  70. World Health Organization–Regional Office for Africa, 2005. The Work of the African Network on Vector Resistance to Insecticides 2000–2004. WHO/African Network on Vector Resistance. Brazzaville: World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2004/WHO_CDS_WHOPES_GCDPP_2004.9.pdf
  71. Laxminarayan R, Chow J, Shahid-Salles S, 2006. Intervention cost-effectiveness: overview of main messages. Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, Alleyne G, Claeson M, Evans DB, Jha P, Mills A, Musgrove P (eds). Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition. Washington, DC: The World Bank and Oxford University Press 35–86.
  72. Conteh L, Sharp BL, Streat E, Barreto A, Konar S, 2004. The cost and cost-effectiveness of malaria vector control by residual insecticide house spraying in southern Mozambique: a rural and urban analysis. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 125–132. [Google Scholar]
  73. World Health Organization, United Nation Children’s Fund, Population Services International, Management Sciences for Health, 2004. Sources and Prices of Selected Products for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria. Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme. Available at: http://rbm.who.int/rbm/Attachment/20040921/SP-Malaria2004.pdf
  74. Walker K, 2000. Cost-comparison of DDT and alternative insecticides for malaria control. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 345–354. [Google Scholar]
  75. Muller O, Traore C, Kouyate B, Ye Y, Frey C, Coulibaly B, Becher H, 2006. Effects of insecticide-treated bednets during early infancy in an African area of intense malaria transmission: a randomized controlled trial. Bull World Health Organ 84 : 120–126. [Google Scholar]
  76. Lines JD, Myamba J, Curtis CF, 1987. Experimental hut trials of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets and eave curtains against malaria vectors in Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 1 : 37–51. [Google Scholar]
  77. Caldas de Castro M, Yamagata Y, Mtasiwa D, Tanner M, Utzinger J, Keiser J, Singer BH, 2004. Integrated urban malaria control: a case study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (2 Suppl): 103–117. [Google Scholar]
  78. Keiser J, Singer BH, Utzinger J, 2005. Reducing the burden of malaria in different eco-epidemiological settings with environmental management: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 5 : 695–708. [Google Scholar]
  79. Breman JG, Mills A, Snow RW, Mulligan J, Lengeler C, Mendis K, Sharp B, Morel C, Marchesini P, White NJ, Steketee RW, Doumbo OK, 2006. Conquering malaria. Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, Alleyne G, Claeson M, Evans DB, Jha P, Mills A, Musgrove P (eds). Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition. Washington, DC: The World Bank and Oxford University Press 413–432.
  80. Over M, Bakote’e B, Velayudhan R, Wilikai P, Graves PM, 2004. Impregnated nets or DDT residual spraying? Field effectiveness of malaria prevention techniques in Solomon Islands, 1993–1999. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (Suppl 2): 214–223. [Google Scholar]
  81. Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Singer BH, 2001. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control. Trop Med Int Health 6 : 677–687. [Google Scholar]
  82. Guyatt HL, Corlett SK, Robinson TP, Ochola SA, Snow RW, 2002. Malaria prevention in highland Kenya: indoor residual house-spraying vs. insecticide-treated bednets. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 298–303. [Google Scholar]
  83. Kiszewski AE, Teklehaimanot A, 2004. A review of the clinical and epidemiologic burdens of epidemic malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (2 Suppl): 128–135. [Google Scholar]
  84. Lepers JP, Deloron P, Andriamagatiana-Rason MD, Ramanamirija JA, Coulanges P, 1990. Newly transmitted Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the central highland plateaux of Madagascar: assessment of clinical impact in a rural community. Bull World Health Organ 68 : 217–222. [Google Scholar]
  85. Jambou R, Ranaivo L, Raharimalala L, Randrianaivo J, Rakotomanana F, Modiano D, Pietra V, Boisier P, Rabarijaona L, Rabe T, Raveloson N, De Giorgi F, 2001. Malaria in the highlands of Madagascar after five years of indoor house spraying of DDT. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 14–18. [Google Scholar]
  86. Mouchet J, Laventure S, Blanchy S, Fioramonti R, Rakotonjanabelo A, Rabarison P, Sircoulon J, Roux J, 1997. The reconquest of the Madagascar highlands by malaria [in French]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 90 : 162–168. [Google Scholar]
  87. Albonico M, De Giorgi F, Razanakolona J, Raveloson A, Sabatinelli G, Pietra V, Modiano D, 1999. Control of epidemic malaria on the highlands of Madagascar. Parassitologia 41 : 373–376. [Google Scholar]
  88. Nyarango PM, Gebremeskel T, Mebrahtu G, Mufunda J, Abdulmumini U, Ogbamariam A, Kosia A, Gebremichael A, Gunawardena D, Ghebrat Y, Okbaldet Y, 2006. A steep decline of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Eritrea between 2000 and 2004: the effect of combination of control methods. Malar J 5 : 33. [Google Scholar]
  89. Craig MH, Kleinschmidt I, Le Sueur D, Sharp BL, 2004. Exploring 30 years of malaria case data in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: part II. The impact of non-climatic factors. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 1258–1266. [Google Scholar]
  90. Maharaj R, Mthembu DJ, Sharp BL, 2005. Impact of DDT reintroduction on malaria transmission in KwaZulu-Natal. S Afr Med J 95 : 871–874. [Google Scholar]
  91. Romi R, Razaiarimanga MC, Raharimanga R, Rakotondraibe EM, Ranaivo LH, Pietra V, Raveloson A, Majori G, 2002. Impact of the malaria control campaign (1993–1998) in the highlands of Madagascar: parasitological and entomological data. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 2–6. [Google Scholar]
  92. Baker L, Barnes K, 2001. New antimalarial treatment for Kwa-Zulu-Natal. S Afr Med J 91 : 358–359. [Google Scholar]
  93. World Health Organization, 2003. The Africa Malaria Report 2003. Geneva: World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund.
  94. Mharakurwa S, Mutambu SL, Mudyiradima R, Chimbadzwa T, Chandiwana SK, Day KP, 2004. Association of house spraying with suppressed levels of drug resistance in Zimbabwe. Malar J 3 : 35. [Google Scholar]
  95. Biscoe ML, Mutero CM, Kramer RA, 2004. Current Policy and Status of DDT Use for Malaria Control in Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and South Africa. Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute.
  96. Wendo C, 2004. Uganda considers DDT to protect homes from malaria. Health officials claim DDT will help save money, but critics warn of environmental costs. Lancet 363 : 1376. [Google Scholar]
  97. Okonski K, Innis N. The real bloodsuckers. The Wall Street Journal. May 19, 2005.
  98. Lengeler C, Sharp B, 2003. Indoor Residual Spraying and Insecticide-Treated Nets: Reducing Malaria’s Burden, Evidence of Effectiveness for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: Global Health Council, 17–24.
  99. Pardo G, Descalzo MA, Molina L, Custodio E, Lwanga M, Mangue C, Obono J, Nchama A, Roche J, Benito A, Cano J, 2006. Impact of different strategies to control Plasmodium infection and anaemia on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). Malar J 5 : 10. [Google Scholar]
  100. Bakyaita N, Root G, 2005. Building Capacity in Monitoring and Evaluating Roll Back Malaria in Africa: A Conceptual Framework for the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. Geneva: Malaria Consortium and World Health Organization–Regional Office for Africa. Available at: http://www.sahims.net/doclibrary/Sahims_Documents/2006/mar/malaria/merg_ConceptualFramework.pdf. Accessed March 4, 2007.
  101. Barr JR, Maggio VL, Barr DB, Turner WE, Sjodin A, Sandau CD, Pirkle JL, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr, 2003. New high-resolution mass spectrometric approach for the measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human serum. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 794 : 137–148. [Google Scholar]
  102. Liu S, Pleil JD, 2002. Human blood and environmental media screening method for pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds using liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 769 : 155–167. [Google Scholar]
  103. Bouwman H, Sereda B, Meinhardt HM, 2006. Simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in human breast milk from a malaria endemic area in South Africa. Environ Pollut 144 : 902–917. [Google Scholar]
  104. Okonkwo JO, Kampira L, Chingakule DD, 1999. Organochlorine insecticides residues in human milk: a study of lactating mothers in Siphofaneni, Swaziland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 63 : 243–247. [Google Scholar]
  105. Herrera-Portugal C, Ochoa H, Franco-Sanchez G, Yanez L, Diaz-Barriga F, 2005. Environmental pathways of exposure to DDT for children living in a malarious area of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ Res 99 : 158–163. [Google Scholar]
  106. Nakata H, Hirakawa Y, Kawazoe M, Nakabo T, Arizono K, Abe S, Kitano T, Shimada H, Watanabe I, Li W, Ding X, 2005. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China. Environ Pollut 133 : 415–429. [Google Scholar]
  107. Brilhante OM, Franco R, 2006. Exposure pathways to HCH and DDT in Cidade dos Meninos and its surrounding districts of Amapa, Figueiras and Pilar, metropolitan regions of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int J Environ Health Res 16 : 205–217. [Google Scholar]
  108. Vieira ED, Torres JP, Malm O, 2001. DDT environmental persistence from its use in a vector control program: a case study. Environ Res 86 : 174–182. [Google Scholar]
  109. Sereda BL, Meinhardt HR, 2005. Contamination of the water environment in malaria endemic areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa by DDT and its metabolites. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 75 : 538–545. [Google Scholar]
  110. Collins FH, Kamau L, Ranson HA, Vulule JM, 2000. Molecular entomology and prospects for malaria control. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 1412–1423. [Google Scholar]
  111. Maxwell CA, Chambo W, Mwaimu M, Magogo F, Carneiro IA, Curtis CF, 2003. Variation of malaria transmission and morbidity with altitude in Tanzania and with introduction of alphacypermethrin treated nets. Malar J 2 : 28. [Google Scholar]
  112. Zaim M, Guillet P, 2002. Alternative insecticides: an urgent need. Trends Parasitol 18 : 161–163. [Google Scholar]
  113. Hemingway J, Beaty BJ, Rowland M, Scott TW, Sharp BL, 2006. The Innovative Vector Control Consortium: improved control of mosquito-borne diseases. Trends Parasitol 22 : 308–312. [Google Scholar]
  114. American Committees on Entomological Nomenclature, 1947. Report of the Committee on the Relation of Entomology to Conservation. J Econ Entomol 40 : 149–150. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 Mar 2007
  • Accepted : 23 Jul 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error