1921
Volume 77, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The mosquito is an important epidemic vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), but detailed studies of its infection are lacking. We compared infection by an epidemic VEEV strain to that by an enzootic strain using virus titrations, immunohistochemistry, and a virus expressing the green fluorescent protein. was more susceptible to the epidemic strain, which initially infected the posterior midgut and occasionally the anterior midgut and cardia. Once dissemination beyond the midgut occurred, virus was present in nearly all tissues. Transmission of the epidemic strain to mice was first detected 4 days after infection. In contrast, the enzootic strain did not efficiently infect midgut cells but replicated in muscles and nervous tissue on dissemination. Because VEEV emergence can depend on adaptation to epidemic vectors, these results show that epidemic/enzootic strain comparisons not only comprise a useful model system to study alphavirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also have important public health implications.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.176
2007-07-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/77/1/0770176.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.176&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Chamberlain RW, Sudia WD, 1961. Mechanism of transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. Annu Rev Entomol 6 : 371–390.
  2. Hardy JL, Houk EJ, Kramer LD, Reeves WC, 1983. Intrinsic factors affecting vector competence of mosquitoes for arboviruses. Annu Rev Entomol 28 : 229–262.
  3. McLintock J, 1978. Mosquito-virus relationships of American encephalitides. Annu Rev Entomol 23 : 17–37.
  4. Murphy FA, Whitfield SG, Sudia WD, Chamberlain RW, 1975. Interactions of vector with vertebrate pathogenic hosts. Maramorosh K, Shope, RE, eds. Invertebrate Immunity. New York: Academic Press, 25–48.
  5. Hardy JL, 1988. Susceptibility and resistance of vector mosquitoes. Monath TP, ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 87–126.
  6. Olson KE, Myles KM, Seabaugh RC, Higgs S, Carlson JO, Beaty BJ, 2000. Development of a Sindbis virus expression system that efficiently expresses green fluorescent protein in midguts of Aedes aegypti following per os infection. Insect Mol Biol 9 : 57–65.
  7. Pierro DJ, Myles KM, Foy BD, Beaty BJ, Olson KE, 2003. Development of an orally infectious Sindbis virus transducing system that efficiently disseminates and expresses green fluorescent protein in Aedes aegypti. Insect Mol Biol 12 : 107–116.
  8. Romoser WS, Wasieloski LP Jr, Pushko P, Kondig JP, Lerdthusnee K, Neira M, Ludwig GV, 2004. Evidence for arbovirus dissemination conduits from the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. J Med Entomol 41 : 467–475.
  9. Chamberlain RW, Sikes RK, Nelson DB, Sudia WD, 1954. Studies on the North American arthropod-borne encephalitides. VI. Quantitative determinations of virus-vector relationships. Am J Hyg 60 : 278–285.
  10. Leake CJ, Johnson RT, 1987. The pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis virus in Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81 : 681–685.
  11. Miles JA, Pillai JS, Maguire T, 1973. Multiplication of Whataroa virus in mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 10 : 176–185.
  12. Rivas F, Diaz LA, Cardenas VM, Daza E, Bruzon L, Alcala A, De la Hoz O, Caceres FM, Aristizabal G, Martinez JW, Revelo D, De la Hoz F, Boshell J, Camacho T, Calderon L, Olano VA, Villarreal LI, Roselli D, Alvarez G, Ludwig G, Tsai T, 1997. Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in La Guajira, Colombia, 1995. J Infect Dis 175 : 828–832.
  13. Weaver SC, Salas R, Rico-Hesse R, Ludwig GV, Oberste MS, Boshell J, Tesh RB, 1996. Re-emergence of epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in South America. VEE Study Group. Lancet 348 : 436–440.
  14. Brault AC, Powers AM, Weaver SC, 2002. Vector infection determinants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus reside within the E2 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol 76 : 6387–6392.
  15. Kramer LD, Scherer WF, 1976. Vector competence of mosquitoes as a marker to distinguish Central American and Mexican epizootic from enzootic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25 : 336–346.
  16. Brault AC, Powers AM, Ortiz D, Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Weaver SC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 : 11344–11349.
  17. Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro JC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol 49 : 141–174.
  18. Powers AM, Brault AC, Kinney RM, Weaver SC, 2000. The use of chimeric Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses as an approach for the molecular identification of natural virulence determinants. J Virol 74 : 4258–4263.
  19. Bernard KA, Klimstra WB, Johnston RE, 2000. Mutations in the E2 glycoprotein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus confer heparan sulfate interaction, low morbidity, and rapid clearance from blood of mice. Virology 276 : 93–103.
  20. Higgs S, Olson KE, Kamrud KI, Powers AM, Beaty BJ, 1997. Viral expression systems and viral infections in insects. Crampton JM, Beard CB, Louis C, eds. Molecular Biology of Disease Vectors: A Methods Manual. London: Chapman and Hall, 457–483.
  21. Romoser WS, Faran ME, Bailey CL, 1987. Newly recognized route of arbovirus dissemination from the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. J Med Entomol 24 : 431–432.
  22. Doi R, 1970. Studies on the mode of development of Japanese encephalitis virus in some groups of mosquitoes by the fluorescent antibody technique. Jpn J Exp Med 40 : 101–115.
  23. Lerdthusnee K, Romoser WS, Faran ME, Dohm DJ, 1995. Rift Valley fever virus in the cardia of Culex pipiens: an immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53 : 331–337.
  24. Romoser WS, Faran ME, Bailey CL, Lerdthusnee K, 1992. An immunocytochemical study of the distribution of Rift Valley fever virus in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46 : 489–501.
  25. Weaver SC, Scott TW, Lorenz LH, Repik PM, 1991. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus deposition in Culiseta melanura following ingestion of radiolabeled virus in bloodmeals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 : 250–259.
  26. Weaver SC, Lorenz LH, Scott TW, 1993. Distribution of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in the alimentary tract of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) following natural and artificial bloodmeals. J Med Entomol 30 : 391–397.
  27. Kuberski T, 1979. Fluorescent antibody studies on the development of dengue-2 virus in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 16 : 343–349.
  28. Linthicum KJ, Platt K, Myint KS, Lerdthusnee K, Innis BL, Vaughn DW, 1996. Dengue 3 virus distribution in the mosquito Aedes aegypti: an immunocytochemical study. Med Vet Entomol 10 : 87–92.
  29. Yamamoto N, Kimura T, Ohyama A, 1987. Multiplication and distribution of type 2 dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses in Toxorhynchites splendens after intrathoracic inoculation. Arch Virol 97 : 37–47.
  30. Platt KB, Linthicum KJ, Myint KS, Innis BL, Lerdthusnee K, Vaughn DW, 1997. Impact of dengue virus infection on feeding behavior of Aedes aegypti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 : 119–125.
  31. Larsen JR, Ashley RF, 1971. Demonstration of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in tissues of Aedes aegypti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20 : 754–760.
  32. Weaver SC, 1986. Electron microscopic analysis of infection patterns for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in the vector mosquito, Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35 : 624–631.
  33. Weaver SC, Scherer WF, Cupp EW, Castello DA, 1984. Barriers to dissemination of Venezuelan encephalitis viruses in the Middle American enzootic vector mosquito, Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33 : 953–960.
  34. Weaver SC, Lorenz LH, Scott TW, 1992. Pathologic changes in the midgut of Culex tarsalis following infection with Western equine encephalomyelitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47 : 691–701.
  35. Weaver SC, Scott TW, Lorenz LH, Lerdthusnee K, Romoser WS, 1988. Togavirus-associated pathologic changes in the midgut of a natural mosquito vector. J Virol 62 : 2083–2090.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.176
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.176
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 Dec 2006
  • Accepted : 10 Apr 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error