1921
Volume 77, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

We used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a quantitative real-time PCR to determine the distribution of three enteroaggregative (EAEC) virulence-related genes in stool samples from hospital patients and school children in the Venda region of South Africa. At least one gene was found in 52 (16.5%) samples, 50 (19.6%) from hospitals and 2 (3%) from schools. The AA probe was found in 36 (69%), the gene was found in 41 (79%), and the gene was found in 49 (94%) of all positive samples. EAEC was significantly associated with diarrhea and intestinal inflammation and was significantly higher (χ = 5.360, = 0.021) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive persons (29.5%) than in HIV-negative persons (13.7%). The presence of EAEC genes was significantly associated with occult blood (χ = 30.543, < 0.0001) in the stool samples. This study suggests that the clinical presentation of EAEC infection may be directly related to the bacterial load as well as to the genetic characteristics of the strains involved.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.142
2007-07-01
2017-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/77/1/0770142.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.142&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Wanke CA, Mayer H, Weber R, Zbinden R, Watson DA, Acheson D, 1998. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a potential cause of diarrheal disease in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 178 : 185–190.
  2. Nataro JP, Mai V, Johnson J, Blackwelder WC, Heimer R, Tirrell S, Edberg SC, Braden CR, Glenn Morris J Jr, Hirshon JM, 2006. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli infection in Baltimore, Maryland, and New Haven, Connecticut. Clin Infect Dis 43 : 402–407.
  3. Nataro JP, Kaper JB, Robins-Browne R, Prado V, Vial P, Levine MM, 1987. Patterns of adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6 : 829–831.
  4. Torres AG, Zhou X, Kaper JB, 2005. Adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains to epithelial cells. Infect Immun 73 : 18–29.
  5. Yamamoto T, Nakazawa M, 1997. Detection and sequences of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 gene in enterotoxigenic E. coli strains isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol 35 : 223–227.
  6. Kahali S, Sarkar B, Rajendran K, Khanam J, Yamasaki S, Nandy RK, Bhattacharya SK, Ramamurthy T, 2004. Virulence characteristics and molecular epidemiology of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates from hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 4111–4120.
  7. Falcao JP, Falcao DP, Gomes TA, 2004. Ice as a vehicle for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Int J Food Microbiol 91 : 99– 103.
  8. Shazberg G, Wolk M, Schmidt H, Sechter I, Gottesman G, Miron D, 2003. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli serotype O126:H27, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 1170–1173.
  9. Nataro JP, Deng Y, Maneval DR, German AL, Martin WC, Levine MM, 1992. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I of entero-aggregative Escherichia coli mediate adherence to HEp-2 cells and hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. Infect Immun 60 : 2297–2304.
  10. Nataro JP, Kaper J, 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin Microbiol Rev 11 : 142–201.
  11. Cerna JF, Nataro JP, Estrada-Garcia T, 2003. Multiplex PCR for detection of three plasmidborne genes of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2138–2140.
  12. Samie A, Mduluza T, Sabeta CT, Njayou M, Bessong PO, Obi CL, 2005. Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar from clinical samples by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Trop Microbiol Biotechnol 5 : 3–9.
  13. Jenkins C, Chart H, Willshaw GA, Cheasty T, Smith HR, 2006. Genotyping of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and identification of target genes for the detection of both typical and atypical strains. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 55 : 13–19.
  14. Elias WP, Uber AP, Tomita S, Trabulsi LR, Gomes TA, 2002. Combinations of putative virulence markers in typical and variant enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains from children with and without diarrhoea. Epidemiol Infect 129 : 49–55.
  15. Bouzari S, Jafari A, Zarepour M, 2005. Distribution of virulence related genes among enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates: using multiplex PCR and hybridization. Infect Genet Evol 5 : 79–83.
  16. Dudley EG, Abe C, Ghigo JM, Latour-Lambert P, Hormazabal JC, Nataro JP, 2006. An IncI1 plasmid contributes to the adherence of the atypical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain C1096 to cultured cells and abiotic surfaces. Infect Immun 74 : 2102–2114.
  17. Sarantuya J, Nishi J, Wakimoto N, Erdene S, Nataro JP, Sheikh J, Iwashita M, Manago K, Tokuda K, Yoshinaga M, Miyata K, Kawano Y, 2004. Typical Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the most prevalent pathotype among E. coli strains causing diarrhea in Mongolian children. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 133–139.
  18. Bouzari S, Jafari MN, Shokouhi F, Parsi M, Jafari A, 2000. Virulence-related DNA sequences and adherence patterns in strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 185 : 89–93.
  19. Obi CL, Green E, Bessong PO, de Villiers B, Hoosen AA, Ig-umbor EO, Potgieter N, 2004. Gene encoding virulence markers among Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhoeic stool samples and river sources in rural Venda communities of South Africa. Water SA 30: 37–42.
  20. Nguyen TV, Van PL, Huy CL, Nguyen Gia K, Weintraub A, 2005. Detection and characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from young children in Hanoi, Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol 43 : 755–760.
  21. Mangia AH, Gomes TA, Vieira MA, Andrade JR, Irino K, Teixeira LM, 2004. Frequency and characteristics of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with and without diarrhoea in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Infec 48 : 161–167.
  22. Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Steinruck H, Kaper JB, 2000. Characterization of Escherichia coli strains from cases of childhood diarrhea in provincial southwestern Nigeria. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 7–12.
  23. Pabst WL, Altwegg M, Kind C, Mirjanic S, Hardegger D, Nadal D, 2003. Prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli among children with and without diarrhea in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2289–2293.
  24. Gassama A, Thiaw B, Dia NM, Fall F, Camara P, Hovette P, Perret JL, Gueye-Ndiaye A, Mboup S, Sow PS, Aidara-Kane A, 2001. Infective etiology of diarrhea in adults with HIV infection in Dakar: a case-control study on 594 patients. Dakar Med 46:46–50.
  25. Durrer P, Zbinden R, Fleisch F, Altwegg M, Ledergerber B, Karch H, Weber R, 2000. Intestinal infection due to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli among human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. J Infect Dis 182 : 1540–1544.
  26. Kelly P, Hicks S, Oloya J, Mwansa J, Sikakwa L, Zulu I, Phillips A, 2003. Escherichia coli enterovirulent phenotypes in Zambians with AIDS-related diarrhoea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 573–576.
  27. Germani Y, Minssart P, Vohito M, Yassibanda S, Glaziou P, Hocquet D, Berthelemy P, Morvan J, 1998. Etiologies of acute, persistent, and dysenteric diarrheas in adults in Bangui, Central African Republic, in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 1008–1014.
  28. Steiner TS, Lima AAM, Nataro JP, Guerrant RL, 1998. Entero-aggregative Escherichia coli produce intestinal inflammation and growth impairment and cause interleukin-8 release from intestinal epithelial cells. J Infect Dis 177 : 88–96.
  29. Greenberg DE, Jiang ZD, Steffen R, Verenker MP, DuPont HL, 2002. Markers of inflammation in bacterial diarrhea among travelers, with a focus on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli pathogenicity. J Infect Dis 185 : 944–949.
  30. Bouckenooghe AR, DuPont HL, Jiang ZD, Adachi J, Mathewson JJ, Verenkar MP, Rodrigues S, Steffen R, 2000. Markers of enteric inflammation in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli diarrhea in travelers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 711–713.
  31. Karch H, Friedrich AW, Gerber A, Zimmerhackl LB, Schmidt MA, Bielaszewska M, 2006. New aspects in the pathogenesis of enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome. Semin Thromb Hemost 32 : 105–112.
  32. Qadri F, Das SK, Faruque AS, Fuchs GJ, Albert MJ, Sack RB, Svennerholm AM, 2000. Prevalence of toxin types and colonization factors in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated during a 2-year period from diarrhoeal patients in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 27–31.
  33. Turner SM, Scott-Tucker A, Cooper LM, Henderson IR, 2006. Weapons of mass destruction: virulence factors of the global killer enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 263 : 10–20.
  34. Rappelli P, Maddau G, Mannu F, Colombo MM, Fiori PL, Cappuccinelli P, 2001. Development of a set of multiplex PCR assays for the simultaneous identification of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. New Microbiol 24 : 77–83.
  35. Scaletsky ICA, Fabbricotti SH, Aranda KR, Morais MB, Fagundes-Neto U, 2002. Comparison of DNA hybridization and PCR assays for detection of putative pathogenic enteroadherent Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 1254–1258.
  36. Wanke CA, Gerrior J, Blais V, Mayer H, Acheson D, 1998. Successful treatment of diarrheal disease associated with enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 178 : 1369–1372.
  37. Eslava C, Navarro-Garcia F, Czeczulin JR, Henderson IR, Cravioto A, Nataro JP, 1998. Pet, an autotransporter enterotoxin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 66 : 3155–3163.
  38. Henderson IR, Czeczulin J, Eslava C, Noriega F, Nataro JP, 1999. Characterization of pic, a secreted protease of Shigella flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 67 : 5587–5596.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.142
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.142
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 20 Dec 2006
  • Accepted : 12 Apr 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error