Volume 77, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A 78-year-old Japanese man who had clinical symptoms and a flu-like illness with fever, chills, diarrhea, and arthralgia had traveled to Cambodia and Khabarovsk, Russia, before the onset of symptoms and illness. He had been bitten by an tick in which the DNA of was detected. The patient’s symptoms improved rapidly after treatment with minocycline. Serologic examination detected antibodies to Lyme disease An polymerase chain reaction with the patient’s plasma amplified a DNA fragment similar to that of .


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Burgdorfer W, Barbour AG, Hayes SF, Benach JL, Grunwaldt E, Davis JP, 1982. Lyme disease – a tick-borne spirochetosis? Science 216 : 1317–1319. [Google Scholar]
  2. Steere AC, 2001. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 34 : 115–125. [Google Scholar]
  3. Yanagihara Y, Masuzawa T, 1997. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis). FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 18 : 249–261. [Google Scholar]
  4. Johnson RC, Schmid GP, Hyde FW, Steingerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, 1984. Borrelia burgdorferi sp. nov., etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34 : 496–497. [Google Scholar]
  5. Baranton G, Postic D, Saint Girons I, Boerlin P, Piffaretti JC, Assous M, Grimont PA, 1992. Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42 : 378–383. [Google Scholar]
  6. Canica MM, Nato F, du Merle L, Mazie JC, Baranton G, Postic D, 1993. Monoclonal antibodies for identification of Borrelia afzelii sp. nov. associated with late cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Scand J Infect Dis 25 : 441–448. [Google Scholar]
  7. Wang G, van Dam AP, Schwartz I, Dankert J, 1999. Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications. Clin Microbiol Rev 12 : 633–653. [Google Scholar]
  8. Wang G, van Dam AP, Dankert J, 1999. Evidence for frequent OspC gene transfer between Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. and other Lyme disease spirochetes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 177 : 289–296. [Google Scholar]
  9. Diza E, Papa A, Vezyri E, Tsounis S, Milonas I, Antoniadis A, 2004. Borrelia valaisiana in cerebrospinal fluid. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 1692–1693. [Google Scholar]
  10. Le Fleche A, Postic D, Girardet K, Peter O, Baranton G, 1997. Characterization of Borrelia lusitaniae sp. nov. by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 : 921–925. [Google Scholar]
  11. Richter D, Schlee DB, Allgower R, Matuschka FR, 2004. Relationships of a novel Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia spielmani sp. nov., with its hosts in central Europe. Appl Environ Microbiol 70 : 6414–6419. [Google Scholar]
  12. Foldvari G, Farkas R, Lakos A, 2005. Borrelia spielmanii erythema migrans, Hungary. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1794–1795. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kawabata H, Masuzawa T, Yanagihara Y, 1993. Genomic analysis of Borrelia japonica sp. nov. isolated from Ixodes ovatus in Japan. Microbiol Immunol 37 : 843–848. [Google Scholar]
  14. Fukunaga M, Hamase A, Okada K, Nakao M, 1996. Borrelia tanukii sp. nov. and Borrelia turdae sp. nov. found from ixodid ticks in Japan: rapid species identification by 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR analysis. Microbiol Immunol 40 : 877–881. [Google Scholar]
  15. Marconi RT, Liveris D, Schwartz I, 1995. Identification of novel insertion elements, restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, and discontinuous 23S rRNA in Lyme disease spirochetes: phylogenetic analyses of rRNA genes and their intergenic spacers in Borrelia japonica sp. nov. and genomic group 21038 (Borrelia andersonii sp. nov.) isolates. J Clin Microbiol 33 : 2427–2434. [Google Scholar]
  16. Postic D, Ras NM, Lane RS, Hendson M, Baranton G, 1998. Expanded diversity among Californian borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group DN127). J Clin Microbiol 36 : 3497–3504. [Google Scholar]
  17. Masuzawa T, Takada N, Kudeken M, Fukui T, Yano Y, Ishiguro F, Kawamura Y, Imai Y, Ezaki T, 2001. Borrelia sinica sp. nov., a Lyme disease-related Borrelia species isolated in China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51 : 1817–1824. [Google Scholar]
  18. Nakao M, Miyamoto K, Fukunaga M, Hashimoto Y, Takahashi H, 1994. Comparative studies on Borrelia afzelii isolated from a patient of Lyme disease, Ixodes persulcatus ticks, and Apodemus speciosus rodents in Japan. Microbiol Immunol 38 : 413–420. [Google Scholar]
  19. Nakao M, Miyamoto K, Fukunaga M, 1994. Lyme disease spirochetes in Japan: enzootic transmission cycles in birds, rodents, and Ixodes persulcatus ticks. J Infect Dis 170 : 878–882. [Google Scholar]
  20. Masuzawa T, Okada Y, Yanagihara Y, Sato N, 1991. Antigenic properties of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes ovatus and Ixodes persulcatus in Hokkaido, Japan. J Clin Microbiol 29 : 1568–1573. [Google Scholar]
  21. Masuzawa T, 2004. Terrestrial distribution of the Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in east Asia. Jpn J Infect Dis 57 : 229–235. [Google Scholar]
  22. Nakao M, Miyamoto K, Fukunaga M, 1994. Borrelia japonica in nature: genotypic identification of spirochetes isolated from Japanese small mammals. Microbiol Immunol 38 : 805–808. [Google Scholar]
  23. Masuzawa T, Suzuki H, Kawabata H, Ishiguro F, Takada N, Yano Y, Yanagihara Y, 1995. Identification of spirochetes isolated from wild rodents in Japan as Borrelia japonica. J Clin Microbiol 33 : 1392–1394. [Google Scholar]
  24. Fukunaga M, Hamase A, Okada K, Inoue H, Tsuruta Y, Miyamoto K, Nakao M, 1996. Characterization of spirochetes isolated from ticks (Ixodes tanuki, Ixodes turdus, and Ixodes columnae) and comparison of the sequences with those of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 62 : 2338–2344. [Google Scholar]
  25. Takada N, Fujita H, Yano Y, Ishiguro F, Iwasaki H, Masuzawa T, 2001. First records of tick-borne pathogens, Borrelia, and spotted fever group Rickettsiae in Okinawajima Island, Japan. Microbiol Immunol 45 : 163–165. [Google Scholar]
  26. Masuzawa T, Fukui T, Miyake M, Oh HB, Cho MK, Chang WH, Imai Y, Yanagihara Y, 1999. Determination of members of a Borrelia afzelii-related group isolated from Ixodes nipponensis in Korea as Borrelia valaisiana. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49 : 1409–1415. [Google Scholar]
  27. Masuzawa T, Pan MJ, Kadosaka T, Kudeken M, Takada N, Yano Y, Imai Y, Yanagihara Y, 2000. Characterization and identification of Borrelia isolates as Borrelia valaisiana in Taiwan and Kinmen Islands. Microbiol Immunol 44 : 1003–1009. [Google Scholar]
  28. Masuzawa T, Hashimoto N, Kudeken M, Kadosaka T, Nakamura M, Kawabata H, Koizumi N, Imai Y, 2004. New genomospecies related to Borrelia valaisiana, isolated from mammals in Okinawa archipelago, Japan. J Med Microbiol 53 : 421–426. [Google Scholar]
  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1995. Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 44 : 590–591. [Google Scholar]
  30. Barbour AG, 1984. Isolation and cultivation of Lyme disease spirochetes. Yale J Biol Med 57 : 521–525. [Google Scholar]
  31. Wormser GP, Bittker S, Cooper D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Pavia C, 2001. Yield of large - volume blood cultures in patients with early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 184 : 1070–1072. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kawabata H, Dancel LA, Villanueva SY, Yanagihara Y, Koizumi N, Watanabe H, 2001. flaB-polymerase chain reaction (flaB-PCR) and its restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis are an efficient tool for detection and identification of Leptospira spp. Microbiol Immunol 45 : 491–496. [Google Scholar]
  33. Kawabata H, Ando S, Kishimoto T, Kurane I, Takano A, Nogami S, Fujita H, Tsurumi M, Nakamura N, Sato F, Takahashi M, Ushijima Y, Fukunaga M, Watanabe H, 2006. First detection of Rickettsia in soft-bodied ticks associated with seabird, Japan. Microbiol Immunol 50 : 403–406. [Google Scholar]
  34. Sato Y, Konishi T, Hashimoto Y, Takahashi H, Nakaya K, Fukunaga M, Nakao M, 1997. Rapid diagnosis of Lyme disease: flagellin gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction for identification of causative Borrelia species. Int J Infect Dis 2 : 64–73. [Google Scholar]
  35. Postic D, Assous MV, Grimont PA, Baranton G, 1994. Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato evidenced by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44 : 743–752. [Google Scholar]
  36. Wang G, Ojaimi C, Wu H, Saksenberg V, Iyer R, Liveris D, McClain SA, Wormser GP, Schwartz I, 2002. Disease severity in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis is associated with the genotype of the infecting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. J Infect Dis 186 : 782–791. [Google Scholar]
  37. Norris DE, Klompen JS, Keirans JE, Black IV WC, 1996. Population genetics of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) based on mitochondrial 16S and 12S genes. J Med Entomol 33 : 78–89. [Google Scholar]
  38. Ushijima Y, Oliver JH Jr, Keirans JE, Tsurumi M, Kawabata H, Watanabe H, Fukunaga M, 2003. Mitochondrial sequence variation in Carlos capensis (Neumann), a parasite of seabirds, collected on Torishima Island in Japan. J Parasitol 89 : 196–198. [Google Scholar]
  39. Sato Y, Miyamoto K, Iwaki A, Masuzawa T, Yanagihara Y, Korenberg EI, Gorelova NB, Volkov VI, Ivanov LI, Liberova RN, 1996. Prevalence of Lyme disease spirochetes in Ixodes persulcatus and wild rodents in far eastern Russia. Appl Environ Microbiol 62 : 3887–3889. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 May 2006
  • Accepted : 19 Jul 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error