1921
Volume 76, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

We tested 1,549 avian carcasses of 104 species to identify targets for West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in Colorado, determine species affected by WNV, compare virus isolation versus RNA detection applied to hearts and oral swabs from carcasses, and compare the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay (VecTest) to standard assays. Forty-two species tested positive. From June to September 2003, 86% of corvids, 34% of non-corvid passerines, and 37% of raptors tested positive. We developed the Target Species Index, which identified American crows as the most important avian indicator species. However, testing multiple species maximizes detection, which may be important early and late in the transmission season. This index may benefit surveillance for other zoonotic pathogens, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus. VecTest using oral swabs was most sensitive for American crow, black-billed magpie, house finch, house sparrow, and American kestrel. Wildlife rehabilitation centers should be recruited to enhance WNV surveillance.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.431
2007-03-01
2017-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/76/3/0760431.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.431&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Julian KG, Eidson M, Kipp AM, Weiss E, Petersen LR, Miller JR, Hinten SR, Marfin AA, 2002. Early season crow mortality as a sentinel for West Nile virus disease in humans, northeastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2 : 145–155.
  2. Guptill SC, Julian KG, Campbell GL, Price SD, Marfin AA, 2003. Early-season avian deaths from West Nile virus as warnings of human infection. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 483–484.
  3. Mostashari F, Kulldorff M, Hartman JJ, Miller JR, Kulasekera V, 2003. Dead bird clusters as an early warning system for West Nile virus activity. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 641–646.
  4. O’Leary DR, Marfin AA, Montgomery SP, Kipp AM, Lehman JA, Biggerstaff BJ, Elko VL, Collins PD, Jones JE, Campbell GL, 2004. The epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4 : 61–70.
  5. Eidson M, Komar N, Sorhage F, Nelson R, Talbot T, Mostashari F, McLean R, West Nile virus Avian Mortality Surveillance Group, 2001. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 615–620.
  6. Eidson M, Kramer L, Stone W, Hagiwara Y, 2001. Avian mortality surveillance as an early warning system for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 631–635.
  7. Johnson GD, Eidson M, Schmit K, Ellis A, Kulldorff M, 2006. Geographic prediction of human onset of West Nile virus using dead crow clusters: an evaluation of year 2002 data in New York State. Am J Epidemiol 163 : 171–180.
  8. Reisen WK, Barker CM, Carney R, Lothrop HD, Wheeler SS, Wilson JL, Madon MB, Takahashi R, Carroll B, Garcia S, Fang Y, Shafii M, Kahl N, Ashtari S, Kramer V, Glaser C, Jean C, 2006. Role of corvids in epidemiology of West Nile virus in southern California. J Med Entomol 43 : 356–367.
  9. Eidson M, 2001. “Neon needles” in a haystack: the advantages of passive surveillance for West Nile virus. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951 : 38–53.
  10. Gubler DJ, Campbell GL, Nasci R, Komar N, Petersen L, Roehrig JT, 2000. West Nile virus in the United States: guidelines for detection, prevention, and control. Viral Immunol 13 : 469–475.
  11. Nasci RS, Komar N, Marfin AA, Ludwig GV, Kramer LD, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Campbell SR, Brookes K, Gottfried KL, Burkhalter KL, Aspen SE, Kerst AJ, Lanciotti RS, Moore CG, 2002. Detection of West Nile virus-infected mosquitoes and seropositive juvenile birds in the vicinity of virus-positive dead birds. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 : 492–496.
  12. Caffrey C, Weston TJ, Smith SC, 2003. High mortality among marked crows subsequent to the arrival of West Nile virus. Wildl Soc Bull 31 : 870–872.
  13. Yaremych SA, Warner RE, Mankin PC, Brawn JD, Raim A, Novak R, 2004. West Nile virus and high death rate in American crows. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 709–711.
  14. Hochachka WM, Dhondt AA, McGowan KJ, Kramer LD, 2004. Impact of West Nile virus on American crows in the northeastern United States, and its relevance to existing monitoring programs. EcoHealth 1 : 60–68.
  15. Ward MP, Raim A, Yaremych-Hamer S, Lampman R, Novak RJ, 2006. Does the roosting behavior of birds affect transmission dynamics of West Nile virus? Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 : 350–355.
  16. Lindsay R, Barker I, Nayar G, Drebot M, Calvin S, Scammell C, Sachvie C, Scammell-La Fleur T, Dibernardo A, Andonova A, Artsob H, 2003. Rapid antigen-capture assay to detect West Nile virus in dead corvids. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 1406–1410.
  17. Yaremych SA, Warner RE, Van de Wyngaerde MT, Ringia AM, Lampman R, Novak RJ, 2003. West Nile virus detection in American crows. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 1319–1321.
  18. Henson G, Hicock P, 2004. Rapid detection of West Nile Virus in birds using the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay. Clin Lab Sci 17 : 218–220.
  19. Stone WB, Okoniewski JC, Therrien JE, Kramer LD, Kauffman EB, Eidson M, 2004. VecTest as diagnostic and surveillance tool for West Nile virus in dead birds. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 2175–2181.
  20. Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Schooley LM, Biggerstaff BJ, Nasci RS, Komar N, 2005. Rapid West Nile virus antigen detection. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1633–1635.
  21. Steele KE, Linn MJ, Schoepp RJ, Komar N, Geisbert TW, Manduca RM, Calle PP, Raphael BL, Clippinger TL, Larsen T, Smith J, Lanciotti RS, Panella NA, McNamara TS, 2000. Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Vet Pathol 37 : 208–224.
  22. Kramer LD, Bernard KA, 2001. West Nile virus infection in birds and mammals. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951 : 84–93.
  23. Panella NA, Kerst A, Lanciotti RS, Byrant P, Wolf B, Komar N, 2001. Comparative West Nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 754–755.
  24. Wünschmann A, Shivers J, Carroll L, Bender J, 2004. Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) naturally infected with West Nile virus. J Vet Diagn Invest 16 : 329–333.
  25. Gibbs SEJ, Ellis AE, Mead DG, Allison AB, Moulton JK, Howerth EW, Stallknecht DE, 2005. West Nile virus detection in the organs of naturally infected blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata). J Wildl Dis 41 : 354–362.
  26. Komar N, Langevin S, Hinten S, Nemeth N, Edwards E, Hettler D, Davis B, Bowen R, Bunning M, 2003. Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 311–322.
  27. Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, Godsey MS, Mitchell CL, Savage HM, Komar N, Panella NA, Allen BC, Volpe KE, Davis BS, Roehrig JT, 2000. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 4066–4071.
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control. 3rd ed. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/wnv-guidelines-aug-2003.pdf. Accessed February 10, 2006.
  29. Ward MR, Stallknecht DE, Willis J, Conroy MJ, Davidson WR, 2006. Wild bird mortality and West Nile virus surveillance: biases associated with detection, reporting, and carcass persistence. J Wildl Dis 42 : 92–106.
  30. Eidson M, Schmit K, Hagiwara Y, Anand M, Backenson PB, Gotham I, Kramer L, 2005. Dead crow density and West Nile virus monitoring, New York. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1370–1375.
  31. Bernard KA, Maffei JG, Jones SA, Kauffman EB, Ebel GD, Dupuis AP II, Ngo KA, Nicholas DC, Young DM, Shi P-Y, Kulasekera VL, Eidson M, White DJ, Stone WB, New York State West Nile virus Surveillance Team, Kramer LD, 2001. West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000. Emerg Inf Dis 7 : 679–685.
  32. Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, Montgomery SP, O’Leary DR, Campbell GL, 2005. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1167–1173.
  33. Nemeth N, Kratz G, Edwards E, Scherpelz J, Bowen R, Komar N, 2007. West Nile virus surveillance in clinic-admitted raptors, Colorado. Emerg Infect Dis 13 : 305–307.
  34. Naugle DE, Aldridge CL, Walker BL, Cornish TE, Moynahan BJ, Holloran MJ, Brown K, Johnson GD, Schmidtmann ET, Mayer RT, Kato CY, Matchett MR, Christiansen TJ, Cook WE, Creekmore T, Falise RD, Rinkes ET, Boyce MS, 2004. West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse. Ecol Lett 7 : 704–713.
  35. Komar N, 2004. West Nile virus and Colorado’s birds. Colorado Birds 38 : 155–160.
  36. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Disease Control and Environmental Epidemiology Division: West Nile virus. Available at http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/dc/zoonosis/wnv/index.html Accessed December 28, 2005.
  37. Komar N, Lanciotti R, Bowen R, Langevin S, Bunning M, 2002. Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs collected from bird carcasses. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 741–742.
  38. Hunt AR, Hall RA, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, Savage HM, Panella NA, Gottfried KL, Burkhalter KL, Roehrig JT, 2002. Detection of West Nile virus antigen in mosquitoes and avian tissues by a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 2023–2030.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.431
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.431
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Jun 2006
  • Accepted : 14 Nov 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error