1921
Volume 76, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.293
2007-02-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/76/2/0760293.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.293&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Scott TW, Weaver SC, 1989. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus: epidemiology and evolution of mosquito transmission. Adv Virus Res 37 : 277–328.
  2. Weaver SC, 2001. Eastern equine encephalitis. Service MW, ed. The Encyclopedia of Arthropod-Transmitted Infections. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 151–159.
  3. Hawley RJ, Eitzen EM Jr, 2001. Biological weapons—a primer for microbiologists. Annu Rev Microbiol 55 : 235–253.
  4. Sabattini MS, Aviles G, Monath TP, 1998. Historical, Epidemiological and Ecological Aspects of Arboviruses in Argentina: Togaviridae, Alphavirus. An Overview of Arbovirology in Brazil and Neighboring Countries. Belem, Brazil: Instituto Evandro Chagas.
  5. Alice FJ, 1956. Infeccao humana pelo virus “leste” da encefalite equina. Bol Inst Biol da Bahia (Brazil) 3 : 3–9.
  6. Corniou B, Ardoin P, Bartholomew C, Ince W, Massiah V, 1972. First isolation of a South American strain of Eastern Equine virus from a case of encephalitis in Trinidad. Trop Geogr Med 24 : 162–167.
  7. Turell MJ, O’Guinn ML, Jones JW, Sardelis MR, Dohm DJ, Watts DM, Fernandez R, Travassos da Rosa A, Guzman H, Tesh R, Rossi CA, Ludwig GV, Mangiafico JA, Kondig J, Wasieloski LP Jr, Pecor J, Zyzak M, Schoeler G, Mores CN, Calampa C, Lee JS, Klein TA, 2005. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon basin region of Peru. J Med Entomol 42 : 891–898.
  8. Brault AC, Powers AM, Chavez CL, Lopez RN, Cachon MF, Gutierrez LF, Kang W, Tesh RB, Shope RE, Weaver SC, 1999. Genetic and antigenic diversity among eastern equine encephalitis viruses from North, Central, and South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 579–586.
  9. Aguilar PV, Greene IP, Coffey LL, Medina G, Moncayo AC, Anishchenko M, Ludwig GV, Turell MJ, O’Guinn ML, Lee J, Tesh RB, Watts DM, Russell KL, Hice C, Yanoviak S, Morrison AC, Klein TA, Dohm DJ, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Guevara C, Kochel T, Olson J, Cabezas C, Weaver SC, 2004. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 880–888.
  10. Calisher CH, Monath TP, Mitchell CJ, Sabattini MS, Cropp CB, Kerschner J, Hunt AR, Lazuick JS, 1985. Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977–1980. III. Identification and characterization of viruses isolated, including new subtypes of western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and four new bunyaviruses (Las Maloyas, Resistencia, Barranqueras, and Antequera). Am J Trop Med Hyg 34 : 956–965.
  11. Camara A, Diaz G, Vega V, Basualdo M, Contigiani M, 2003. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex (subtypes IAB and VI) in humans from General Belgrano island, Formosa, Argentina. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 45 : 201–204.
  12. Causey CE, 1963. The role of small mammals in maintenance of arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon forests. Microbiology 2 : 119–121.
  13. Gonzalez LE, Sabattini MS, Vanella JM, Bianchini NR, 1965. Primer aislamiento en la Republica Argentina de arbovirus group A, pertenecientes al complelo Mayaro-Una. I. Validez del aislamiento. Terceras sesiones cientifícas de biologia (Rosario).
  14. Mitchell CJ, Monath TP, Sabattini MS, Cropp CB, Daffner JF, Calisher CH, Jakob WL, Christensen HA, 1985. Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977–1980. II. Arthropod collections and virus isolations from Argentine mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34 : 945–955.
  15. Oberste MS, Weaver SC, Watts DM, Smith JF, 1998. Identification and genetic analysis of Panama-genotype Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 41–46.
  16. Tesh RB, Watts DM, Russell KL, Damodaran C, Calampa C, Cabezas C, Ramirez G, Vasquez B, Hayes CG, Rossi CA, Powers AM, Hice CL, Chandler LJ, Cropp BC, Karabatsos N, Roehrig JT, Gubler DJ, 1999. Mayaro virus disease: An emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. Clin Infect Dis 28 : 67–73.
  17. Travassos da Rosa AP, Turell MJ, Watts DM, Powers AM, Vasconcelos PF, Jones JW, Klein TA, Dohm DJ, Shope RE, Degallier N, Popov VL, Russell KL, Weaver SC, Guzman H, Calampa C, Brault AC, Lemon AP, Tesh RB, 2001. Trocara virus: A newly recognized Alphavirus (Togaviridae) isolated from mosquitoes in the Amazon Basin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 93–97.
  18. Watts DM, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste MS, Roehrig JT, Wooster MT, Smith JF, Cropp CB, Gentrau EM, Karabatsos N, Gubler D, Hayes CG, 1998. Venezuelan equine encephalitis febrile cases among humans in the Peruvian Amazon River region. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 35–40.
  19. Watts DM, Lavera V, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste MS, Roehrig JT, Cropp CB, Karabatsos N, Smith JF, Gubler DJ, Wooster MT, Nelson WM, Hayes CG, 1997. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Oropouche virus infections among Peruvian army troops in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56 : 661–667.
  20. Weaver SC, Salas R, Rico-Hesse R, Ludwig GV, Oberste MS, Boshell J, Tesh RB, 1996. Re-emergence of epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in South America. VEE Study Group. Lancet 348 : 436–440.
  21. Calisher CH, Maness KS, 1975. Laboratory studies of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in equines, Texas, 1971. J Clin Microbiol 2 : 198–205.
  22. Allen WP, 1962. Cross protection among group A arthropod-borne viruses. Bacteriol Proc 152.
  23. Hearn HJ Jr, Rainey CT, 1963. Cross-protection in animals infected with group a arboviruses. J Immunol 90 : 720–724.
  24. Walton TE, Jochim MM, Barber TL, Thompson LH, 1989. Cross-protective immunity between equine encephalomyelitis viruses in equids. Am J Vet Res 50 : 1442–1446.
  25. Byrne RJ, French GR, Yancey FS, Gochenour WS, Russell PK, Ramsburg HH, Brand OA, Scheider FG, Buescher EL, 1964. Clinical and immunologic interrelationship among Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses in Burros. Am J Vet Res 25 : 24–31.
  26. Shahan MS, Giltner LT, 1935. Equine encephalomyelitis studies: I. Cross-immunity tests between eastern and western types of virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 86 : 764–772.
  27. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1989. Arboviruses. Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Sixth edition.. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797–855.
  28. Jones JW, Turell MJ, Sardelis MR, Watts DM, Coleman RE, Fernandez R, Carbajal F, Pecor JE, Calampa C, Klein TA, 2004. Seasonal distribution, biology, and human attraction patterns of culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a forest near Puerto Almendras, Iquitos, Peru. J Med Entomol 41 : 349–360.
  29. Causey OR, Theiler M, 1958. Virus antibody survey on sera of residents of the Amazon Valley in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7 : 36–41.
  30. Theiler M, Downs WG, 1973. The Arthropod-borne Viruses of Vertebrates. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  31. Scherer WF, Dickerman RW, Ordonez JV, 1979. Serologic surveys for the determination of antibodies against the Eastern, Western, California, and St. Louis encephalitis and dengue 3 arboviruses in Central America, 1961–1975. Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 87 : 210–223.
  32. Aguilar PV, Paessler S, Carrara AS, Baron S, Poast J, Wang E, Moncayo AC, Anishchenko M, Watts D, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, 2005. Variation in interferon sensitivity and induction among strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Virol 79 : 11300–11310.
  33. Weaver SC, Frey TK, Huang HV, Kinney RM, Rice CM, Roehrig JT, Shope RE, Strauss EG, 2005. Togaviridae. Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the ICTV. London: Elsevier/ Academic Press, 999–1008.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.293
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.293
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Apr 2006
  • Accepted : 30 Sep 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error