Volume 76, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Preliminary serologic data indicated that two South American phleboviruses (Belterra virus [BELTV] and Icoaraci virus [ICOV]) may be related to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an African phlebovirus that causes severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever in humans. To further define this relationship and to investigate the underlying genetic basis, comparative serologic and genetic sequence analyses were performed with RVFV and five other New World phleboviruses (ICOV, BELTV, Salobo virus, Joa virus, and Frijoles virus). Serologically, a one-way cross reaction was confirmed between antibodies against these New World viruses and RVFV antigen. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clear separation of these viruses from RVFV, into distinct phylogenies, based on sequences of the small, medium, and large RNA segments.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Nichol ST, Beaty BJ, Elliot RM, Goldbach R, Plyusin A, Schmaljohn CS, Tesh RB, 2005. Family Bunyaviridae. Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Virus. San Diego, London: Elsevier Academic Press, 695–716.
  2. Tesh RB, 1989. Phlebotomus fevers. Monath TP, ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Volume 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 15–27.
  3. Charrel RM, Gallian P, Navarro-Mari JM, Nicoletti L, Papa A, Sanchez-Seco MP, Tenorio A, de Lamballerie X, 2005. Emergence of Toscana virus in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1657–1663. [Google Scholar]
  4. Niklasson B, Peters CJ, Bengtsson E, Norrby E, 1985. Rift Valley fever vaccine trial: study of neutralizing antibody response in humans. Vaccine 3 : 123–127. [Google Scholar]
  5. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1989. Arboviruses. Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Washington DC: American Public Health Association, 797–55.
  6. Clarke DH, Casals J, 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7 : 561–573. [Google Scholar]
  7. Liu DY, Tesh RB, Travassos da Rosa AP, Peters CJ, Yang Z, Guzman H, Xiao SY, 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) based on partial M segment sequence analyses. J Gen Virol 84 : 465–473. [Google Scholar]
  8. Swofford DL, 2002. PAUP* (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony) (*and other methods), version 4. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  9. Kumar S, Gadagkar SR, 2000. Efficiency of the neighbor-joining method in reconstructing deep and shallow evolutionary relationships in large phylogenies. J Mol Evol 51 : 544–553. [Google Scholar]
  10. Felsenstein J, 1988. Phylogenies from molecular sequences: inference and reliability. Annu Rev Genet 22 : 521–565. [Google Scholar]
  11. Huelsenbeck PJ, Ronquist FR, 2001. MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17 : 754–755. [Google Scholar]
  12. Page RD, 1996. Treeview: An application to display phyloge netic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12 : 357–358. [Google Scholar]
  13. Travassos da Rosa AP, Tesh RB, Pinheiro FP, Travassos da Rosa JF, Peterson NE, 1983. Characterization of eight new phlebotomus fever serogroup arboviruses (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from the Amazon region of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 : 1164–1171. [Google Scholar]
  14. Beaty BJ, Sundin DR, Chandler LJ, Bishop DH, 1985. Evolution of bunyaviruses by genome reassortment in dually infected mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus). Science 230 : 548–550. [Google Scholar]
  15. Pringle CR, 1996. Genetic and genome segment reassortment. Elliott RM, eds. The Bunyaviridae. New York: Plenum Press, 189–26.
  16. Sall AA, Zanotto PM, Sene OK, Zeller HG, Digoutte JP, Thiongane Y, Bouloy M, 1999. Genetic reassortment of Rift Valley fever virus in nature. J Virol 73 : 8196–8200. [Google Scholar]
  17. Lowen AC, Boyd A, Fazakerley JK, Elliott RM, 2005. Attenuation of bunyavirus replication by rearrangement of viral coding and noncoding sequences. J Virol 79 : 6940–6946. [Google Scholar]
  18. de Filippis VR, Villareal LP, 2001. Virus evolution. Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology. Volume 1. Fourth edition, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 353–370.
  19. Nunes MR, Travassos da Rosa AP, Weaver SC, Tesh RB, Vasconcelos PF, 2005. Molecular epidemiology of group C viruses (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) isolated in the Americas. J Virol 79 : 10561–10570. [Google Scholar]
  20. Cohn M, 2005. Degeneracy, mimicry and crossreactivity in immune recognition. Mol Immunol 42 : 651–655. [Google Scholar]
  21. Accardi L, Prehaud C, Di Bonito P, Mochi S, Bouloy M, Giorgi C, 2001. Activity of Toscana and Rift Valley fever virus transcription complexes on heterologous templates. J Gen Virol 82 : 781–785. [Google Scholar]
  22. Flick R, Bouloy M, 2005. Rift Valley fever virus. Curr Mol Med 5 : 827–834. [Google Scholar]
  23. Vialat P, Billecocq A, Kohl A, Bouloy M, 2000. The S segment of Rift Valley fever Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) carries determinants for attenuation and virulence in mice. J Virol 74 : 1538–1543. [Google Scholar]
  24. Flick K, Katz A, Overby A, Feldmann H, Pettersson RF, Flick R, 2004. Functional analysis of the noncoding regions of the Uukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae) RNA segments. J Virol 78 : 11726–11738. [Google Scholar]
  25. Ikegami T, Won S, Peters CJ, Makino S, 2005. Rift Valley fever virus NSs mRNA is transcribed from an incoming anti-viral-sense S RNA segment. J Virol 79 : 12106–12111. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 Dec 2006
  • Accepted : 05 Mar 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error