1921
Volume 76, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The December 2004 tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia, destroyed drinking water infrastructure, placing over 500,000 displaced persons at increased risk of waterborne disease. In June 2005, we assessed the relationship of water handling behaviors to household water quality in three districts: Aceh Besar, Simeulue, and Nias. We surveyed 1,127 households from 21 communities and tested stored drinking water. Factors associated with a reduced likelihood of having contaminated stored drinking water included obtaining water from improved sources (Aceh Besar, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.41, < 0.01; Simeulue, aOR 0.48, = 0.02), using chlorine solution (Simeulue, aOR 0.41, < 0.01), and having free chlorine in stored water (Aceh Besar, aOR 0.42, < 0.01; Nias, aOR 0.28, < 0.01). Reported boiling, even among those who could describe correct practice, was not associated with improved water quality. Water source improvement and household water chlorination appear to be useful strategies to improve household stored drinking water quality in post-disaster situations.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1158
2007-06-01
2017-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/76/6/0761158.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1158&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2005. Moving beyond the tsunami: the WHO story. Geneva: WHO, 12.
  2. World Health Organization, 2005. Epidemic-prone disease surveillance and response after the tsunami in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80 : 160.
  3. Clasen T, Smith L, Albert J, Bastable A, Fesselet J, 2006. The drinking water response to the Indian Ocean tsunami, including the role of household water treatment. Disaster Prev Manag 15 : 190–201.
  4. Gupta SK, Quick R, 2006. Inadequate drinking water quality from tanker trucks following a tsunami disaster, Aceh, Indonesia, June 2005. Disaster Prev Manag 15 : 213–215.
  5. Rolos R, 2005. Rapid development of information, education and communication material to promote hygiene, sanitation and safe drinking water following an earthquake and tsunami: Aceh Province, Indonesia, 2005. Presented at 2005 International Symposium on Household Water Management, Thailand. Abstract available at: http://www.who.int/household_water/bangkok2005_presentations/en/index1.html
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. Safe Water Systems for the Developing World: A Handbook for Implementing Household-Based Water Treatment and Safe Storage Projects. Atlanta, GA: CDC.
  7. Semenza J, Roberts L, Henderson A, Bogan J, Rubin C, 1998. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case evaluation in Uzbekistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 941–946.
  8. Quick R, Kimura A, Thevos A, Tembo M, Shamputa I, Hutwagner L, Mintz E, 2002. Diarrhea prevention through household-level water disinfection and safe storage in Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 584–589.
  9. Quick R, Venczel L, Mintz E, Soleto L, Aparicio J, Gironaz M, Hutwagner L, Greene K, Bopp C, Maloney K, Chavez D, Sobsey M, Tauxe R, 1999. Diarrhea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use disinfection and safe storage: a promising new strategy. Epidemiol Infect 122 : 83–90.
  10. Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Hoekstra RM, Rahbar MH, Billhimer MH, Keswisk BH, 2004. Delayed effectiveness of home-based interventions in reducing childhood diarrhea, Karachi, Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 420–427.
  11. Sobsey MD, Handzel T, Venczel L, 2003. Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease. Water Sci Technol 47 : 221–228.
  12. Macy JT, Dunne EF, Angoran-Benie YH, Kamelan-Tano Y, Kouadio L, Djai KA, Luby SP, 2005. Comparison of two methods for evaluating the quality of stored drinking water in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, and review of other comparisons in the literature. J Water Health 3 : 221–228.
  13. WHO, 2005. Water for Life: Making It Happen. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF, 6.
  14. Quick R, Venczel L, Gonzalez O, Mintz E, Highsmith A, Espada A, Damiani E, Bean N, De Hannover R, Tauxe R, 1996. Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 : 511–516.
  15. Sobel J, Mahon B, Mendoza C, Passaro D, Cano F, Baier K, Racioppi F, Hutwagner L, Mintz E, 1998. Reduction of fecal contamination of street-vended beverages in Guatemala by a simple system for water purification and storage, handwashing, and beverage storage. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 380–387.
  16. Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Razz A, Sobel J, 2001. A low-cost intervention for cleaner drinking water in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis 5 : 144–150.
  17. Water and Sanitation Committee, Aceh Provincial Government, and UNICEF, 2005. Summary of WatSan coordination meeting, June 6, 2005, Banda Aceh, Indonesia: Humanitarian info—Sumatra. Available at: www.humanitarianinfo.org/sumatra/reliefrecovery/watsan/docs/minutes/WatSan-060605.pdf
  18. Dunston C, McAfee D, Kaiser R, Rakotoarison D, Rambeloson L, Hoang A, Quick R, 2001. Collaboration, cholera, and cyclones: improving point-of-use water quality in Madagascar. Am J Public Health 91 : 1574–1576.
  19. Makutsa P, Nzaku K, Ogutu P, Barasa P, Ombeki S, Mwaki A, Quick R, 2001. Challenges in implementing a point-of-use water quality intervention in Rural Kenya. Am J Public Health 91 : 1571–1573.
  20. The Sphere Project, 2004. The Sphere Handbook: The Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Geneva: The Sphere Project, 54–75. Available at: http://www.sphereproject.org/handbook/hdbkpdf/hdbk_c2.pdf
  21. United States Agency for International Development, 2005. Indian Ocean: earthquake and tsunamis fact sheet #24 (FY 2005), January 21, 2005. Washington, DC: United States Agency for International Development.
  22. Wright J, Gundry S, Conroy R, 2004. Household drinking water in developing countries: A systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 106–117.
  23. Trevett A, 2002. Household water security—the quality component. Waterlines 21 : 2–4.
  24. Swerdlow DL, Malenga G, Begkoyian G, Nyangulu D, Toole M, Waldman R, Puhr D, Tauxe RV, 1997. Epidemic cholera among refugees in Malawi, Africa: treatment and transmission. Epidemiol Infect 118 : 207–214.
  25. Ries AA, Vugia DJ, Beingolea L, Palacios AM, Vasquez E, Wells JG, Garcia Baca N, Swerdlow DL, Pollack M, Bean NH, 1992. Cholera in Piura, Peru: a modern urban epidemic. J Infect Dis 166 : 1429–1433.
  26. Tuttle J, Ries AA, Chimba RM, Perera CU, Bean NH, Griffin PM, 1995. Antimicrobial-resistant epidemic Shigella dysenteriae type 1 in Zambia: modes of transmission. J Infect Dis 171 : 371–375.
  27. Swerdlow DL, Mintz ED, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, Greene KD, Saldana W, Seminario L, Tauxe RV, 1992. Waterborne transmission of epidemic cholera in Trujillo, Peru: lessons for a continent at risk. Lancet 340 : 28–33.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1158
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1158
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Jun 2006
  • Accepted : 05 Dec 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error