Volume 76, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To investigate the epidemiology of human toxocariasis in a steppe environment, a field survey was carried out in three provinces of Argentina’s Patagonia (Chubut, Neuquen, and Rio Negro) among 114 rural subjects residing in (cattle- or sheep-breeding ranches). Overall seroprevalence was 31.6%, and the contamination rate of soil by eggs was 35.1%. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed for various exposure variables and also for the De Martonne aridity–humidity index. Multivariate analysis revealed that the seroprevalence rate was found to be inversely correlated with age but was positively linked to De Martonne index. These findings suggest that the harsh climatic conditions existing in Argentina’s Patagonia would inhibit embryonation of eggs in the soil, thus lowering the transmission of human toxocariasis.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Beaver PC, Snyder CH, Carrera GM, Dent JH, Lafferty JW, 1952. Chronic eosinophilia due to visceral larva migrans; report of three cases. Pediatrics 9 : 7–19. [Google Scholar]
  2. Nagakura K, Kanno S, Tachibana H, Kaneda Y, Ohkido M, Kondo K, Inoue H, 1990. Serologic differentiation between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. J Infect Dis 162 : 1418–1419. [Google Scholar]
  3. Glickman LT, Schantz PM, 1981. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of zoonotic toxocariasis. Epidemiol Rev 3 : 230–250. [Google Scholar]
  4. Gamboa MI, 2005. Effects of temperature and humidity on the development of eggs of Toxocara canis under laboratory conditions. J Helminthol 79 : 327–331. [Google Scholar]
  5. Jimenez JF, Valladares B, Fernandez-Palacios JM, de Armas F, del Castillo A, 1997. A serologic study of human toxocariasis in the Canary Islands (Spain): environmental influences. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56 : 113–115. [Google Scholar]
  6. Safar EH, Abdel Ghaffar FM, Saffar SA, Makled KM, Habib KS, el Abiad R, el Shabrawy E, 1995. Incidence of Toxoplasma and Toxocara antibodies among out-patients in the Ophthalmic Research Institute, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 25 : 839–852. [Google Scholar]
  7. Theodoridis I, Frydas S, Papazahariadou M, Hatzistilianou M, Adamama-Moraitou KK, Di Gioacchino M, Felaco M, 2001. Toxocarosis as zoonosis. A review of literature and the prevalence of Toxocara canis antibodies in 511 serum samples. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 14 : 17–23. [Google Scholar]
  8. Malla N, Aggarwal AK, Mahajan RC, 2002. A serological study of human toxocariasis in north India. Natl Med J India 15 : 145–147. [Google Scholar]
  9. Huminer D, Symon K, Groskopf I, Pietrushka D, Kremer I, Schantz PM, Pitlik SD, 1992. Seroepidemiologic study of toxocariasis and strongyloidiasis in institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46 : 278–281. [Google Scholar]
  10. Kanafani ZA, Skoury A, Araj GF, El-Khoury M, Sawaya RA, Atweh SF, Kanj SS, 2006. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in Lebanon: a pilot study. Parasitology 132 : 635–639. [Google Scholar]
  11. Sadjjadi SM, Khosravi M, Mehrabani D, Orya A, 2000. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in school children in Shiraz, southern Iran. J Trop Pediatr 46 : 327–330. [Google Scholar]
  12. Strahler AN, Strahler AH, 2006. Introduction to Physical Geography. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  13. Craig PS, Larrieu E, 2006. Control of cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis: 1863–2002. Adv Parasitol 61 : 443–508. [Google Scholar]
  14. De Savigny DH, 1975. In vitro maintenance of Toxocara canis larvae and a simple method for the production of Toxocara ES antigen for use in serodiagnostic tests for visceral larva migrans. J Parasitol 61 : 781–782. [Google Scholar]
  15. Bowman DD, Mika-Grieve M, Grieve RB, 1987. Circulating excretory–secretory antigen levels and specific antibody responses in mice infected with Toxocara canis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36 : 75–82. [Google Scholar]
  16. Magnaval J-F, Fabre R, Maurieres P, Charlet J-P, de Larrard B, 1991. Application of the western blotting procedure for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. Parasitol Res 77 : 697–702. [Google Scholar]
  17. Sheather AI, 1923. The detection of intestinal protozoa and mange parasites by a flotation technique. J Comp Ther 36 : 266–275. [Google Scholar]
  18. Mitchell TD, Jones PD, 2005. An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Int J Climatol 25 : 693–712. [Google Scholar]
  19. Barriga OO, 1988. A critical look at the importance, prevalence and control of toxocariasis and the possibilities of immunological control. Vet Parasitol 29 : 195–234. [Google Scholar]
  20. Herrmann N, Glickman LT, Schantz PM, Weston MG, Domanski LM, 1985. Seroprevalence of zoonotic toxocariasis in the United States: 1971–1973. Am J Epidemiol 122 : 890–896. [Google Scholar]
  21. Glickman LT, Magnaval JF, Domanski LM, Shofer FS, Lauria SS, Gottstein B, Brochier B, 1987. Visceral larva migrans in French adults: a new disease syndrome? Am J Epidemiol 125 : 1019–1034. [Google Scholar]
  22. Gueglio B, de Gentile L, Nguyen JM, Achard J, Chabasse D, Marjolet M, 1994. Epidemiologic approach to human toxocariasis in western France. Parasitol Res 80 : 531–536. [Google Scholar]
  23. Magnaval J-F, Baixench M, 1993. Toxocariasis in the Midi-Pyrénnées region. Lewis JW, Maizels RM, eds. Toxocara and Toxocariasis. Clinical, Epidemiological, and Molecular Perspectives. London: British Society for Parasitology, 63–69.
  24. Jeanneret J-P, 1991. Epidémiologie de la Toxocarose dans la Région Jurassienne. Neufchâtel, Suisse: Université de Neufchâtel, Institut de Zoologie. http://doc.rero.ch/lm.php?url=1000,40,4,20050519090858-VV/2_these_JeanneretJP.pdf. Accessed April 18, 2007.
  25. Deutz A, Fuchs K, Auer H, Kerbl U, Aspock H, Kofer J, 2005. Toxocara-infestations in Austria: a study on the risk of infection of farmers, slaughterhouse staff, hunters and veterinarians. Parasitol Res 97 : 390–394. [Google Scholar]
  26. Buijs J, Borsboom G, Renting M, Hilgersom WJ, van Wieringen JC, Jansen G, Neijens J, 1997. Relationship between allergic manifestations and Toxocara seropositivity: a cross-sectional study among elementary school children. Eur Respir J 10 : 1467–1475. [Google Scholar]
  27. Cilla G, Perez-Trallero E, Gutierrez C, Part C, Gomariz M, 1996. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in middle-class and disadvantaged children in northern Spain (Gipuzkoa, Basque Country). Eur J Epidemiol 12 : 541–543. [Google Scholar]
  28. Thompson DE, Bundy DA, Cooper ES, Schantz PM, 1986. Epidemiological characteristics of Toxocara canis zoonotic infection of children in a Caribbean community. Bull World Health Organ 64 : 283–290. [Google Scholar]
  29. Magnaval J-F, Michault A, Calon N, Charlet J-P, 1994. Epidemiology of human toxocariasis in La Reunion. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : 531–533. [Google Scholar]
  30. Fonrouge R, Guardis MV, Radman NE, Archelli SM, 2000. Contaminacion de suelos con huevos de Toxocara sp. en plazas y parques publicos de la ciudad de La Plata. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Bol Chil Parasitol 55 : 83–85. [Google Scholar]
  31. Radman NE, Archelli SM, Fonrouge RD, del V Guardis M, Linzitto OR, 2000. Human toxocarosis. Its seroprevalence in the city of La Plata. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95 : 281–285. [Google Scholar]
  32. Alonso JM, Stein M, Chamorro MC, Bojanich MV, 2001. Contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara in a subtropical city in Argentina. J Helminthol 75 : 165–168. [Google Scholar]
  33. Alonso JM, Bojanich MV, Chamorro M, Gorodner JO, 2000. Toxocara seroprevalence in children from a subtropical city in Argentina. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 42 : 235–237. [Google Scholar]
  34. Lopez M de L, Martin G, Chamorro M del C, Mario Alonso J, 2005. Toxocariasis en niños de una region subtropical. Medicina (B Aires) 65 : 226–230. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 Oct 2006
  • Accepted : 12 Mar 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error