1921
Volume 76, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) to prevent malaria remains low, and effective distribution strategies are needed. An integrated child health campaign with free distribution of 162,254 untreated bednets bundled with insecticide, measles vaccination, vitamin A, and mebendazole for children < 5 years old (“under-5s”) was conducted in Lindi Region, Tanzania. We conducted a representative household survey 3 months after the campaign. Altogether, 574 households with 354 under-5s were visited. In households with an under-5, possession of bednets and ITNs increased from 60.9% to 90.7% ( < 0.001) and from 16.5% to 37.3% ( < 0.001), respectively. Increases occurred in all wealth quintiles and equity improved. Reported bednet and ITN use the previous night among under-5s was 46.3% and 21.5%, respectively. Integrated campaigns rapidly and equitably increase bednet possession and use meriting continued large-scale implementation. However, our study found that bednets were rarely treated; thus, future campaigns should provide factory-treated long-lasting ITNs. Low ITN use underscores the need for further efforts to increase use after campaigns.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1100
2007-06-01
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/76/6/0761100.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1100&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2005. World Malaria Report 2005. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  2. Lengeler C, 2004. Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD000363.
  3. Jones G, Steketee RW, Black RE, Bhutta ZA, Morris SS, 2003. How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet 362 : 65–71.
  4. Holtz TH, Marum LH, Mkandala C, Chizani N, Roberts JM, Macheso A, Parise ME, Kachur SP, 2002. Insecticide-treated bednet use, anaemia, and malaria parasitaemia in Blantyre District, Malawi. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 220–230.
  5. Monasch R, Reinisch A, Steketee RW, Korenromp EL, Alnwick D, Bergevin Y, 2004. Child coverage with mosquito nets and malaria treatment from population-based surveys in African countries: a baseline for monitoring progress in Roll Back Malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 232–238.
  6. CDC, 2005. Distribution of insecticide-treated bednets during an integrated nationwide immunization campaign—Togo, West Africa, December 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54 : 994–996.
  7. CDC, 2006. Distribution of insecticide-treated bednets during a polio immunization campaign—Niger, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55 : 913–916.
  8. Blackburn BG, Eigege A, Gotau H, Gerlong G, Miri E, Hawley WA, Mathieu E, Richards F, 2006. Successful integration of insecticide-treated bed net distribution with mass drug administration in Central Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 : 650–655.
  9. Grabowsky M, Farrell N, Hawley W, Chimumbwa J, Hoyer S, Wolkon A, Selanikio J, 2005. Integrating insecticide-treated bednets into a measles vaccination campaign achieves high, rapid and equitable coverage with direct and voucher-based methods. Trop Med Int Health 10 : 1151–1160.
  10. Grabowsky M, Nobiya T, Ahun M, Donna R, Lengor M, Zimmerman D, Ladd H, Hoekstra E, Bello A, Baffoe-Wilmot A, Amofah G, 2005. Distributing insecticide-treated bednets during measles vaccination: a low-cost means of achieving high and equitable coverage. Bull World Health Organ 83 : 195–201.
  11. National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania, 2003. 2002 Population and Housing Census: General Report. Dar es Salaam: Central Census Office, National Bureau of Statistics, United Republic of Tanzania.
  12. National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania, MEASURE DHS, ORC Macro, 2005. Tanzania demographic and health survey, 2004–2005: preliminary report. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: National Bureau of Statistics.
  13. National Malaria Control Programme, Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Expanded Program on Immunization, National Institute for Medical Research, 2005. Preliminary report: free distribution of ITNs during the integrated measles campaign in Lindi Region. Dares-Salaam, Tanzania: National Malaria Control Program.
  14. Gwatkin DR, Rustein S, Johnson K, Pande RP, Wagstaff A, 2000. Socioeconomic Differences in Health, Nutrition, and Population in Tanzania. Washington, D.C.: Health, Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Group of the World Bank.
  15. World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, 2001. Measles Mortality Reduction and Regional Elimination Strategic Plan, 2001–2005. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  16. Maxwell CA, Msuya E, Sudi M, Njunwa KJ, Carneiro IA, Curtis CF, 2002. Effect of community-wide use of insecticide-treated nets for 3–4 years on malarial morbidity in Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 1003–1008.
  17. Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, Nahlen BL, Gimnig JE, Kariuki SK, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, 2003. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 121–127.
  18. Onwujekwe O, el Malik F, Mustafa SH, Mnzavaa A, 2006. Do malaria preventive interventions reach the poor? Socioeconomic inequities in expenditure on and use of mosquito control tools in Sudan. Health Policy Plan 21 : 10–16.
  19. Webster J, Lines J, Bruce J, Armstrong Schellenberg JR, Hanson K, 2005. Which delivery systems reach the poor? A review of equity of coverage of ever-treated nets, never-treated nets, and immunisation to reduce child mortality in Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 5 : 709–717.
  20. Population Services International, 2003. Consumer Oriented Research on the Effect of Bundling Nets with Treatment Kits: Draft Report. Dar es Salaam: Population Services International, 1–13.
  21. Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 2005. Global Strategic Plan: Roll Back Malaria, 2005–2015. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  22. Korenromp EL, Miller J, Cibulskis RE, Kabir Cham M, Alnwick D, Dye C, 2003. Monitoring mosquito net coverage for malaria control in Africa: possession vs. use by children under 5 years. Trop Med Int Health 8 : 693–703.
  23. Macintyre K, Keating J, Okbaldt YB, Zerom M, Sosler S, Ghebremeskel T, Eisele TP, 2006. Rolling out insecticide treated nets in Eritrea: examining the determinants of possession and use in malarious zones during the rainy season. Trop Med Int Health 11 : 824–833.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1100
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1100
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Feb 2007
  • Accepted : 10 Mar 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error