1921
Volume 76, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Genetic strategies for controlling malaria transmission based on engineering pathogen resistance in mosquitoes are being tested in a number of animal models. A key component is the effector molecule and the efficiency with which it reduces parasite transmission. Single-chain antibodies (scFvs) that bind the circumsporozoite protein of the avian parasite, , can reduce mean intensities of sporozoite infection of salivary glands by two to four orders of magnitude in transgenic . Significantly, mosquitoes with as few as 20 sporozoites in their salivary glands are infectious for a vertebrate host, . Although scFvs hold promise as effector molecules, they will have to reduce mean intensities of infection to zero to prevent parasite transmission and disease. We conclude that similar endpoints must be reached with human pathogens if we are to expect an effect on disease transmission.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1072
2007-06-01
2019-01-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/76/6/0761072.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1072&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Schneider DS, James AA, 2006. Bridging the gaps in vector biology. Workshop on the molecular and population biology of mosquitoes and other disease vectors. EMBO Rep 7 : 259–262. [Google Scholar]
  2. Marrelli MT, Moreira CK, Kelly D, Alphey L, Jacobs-Lorena M, 2006. Mosquito transgenesis: what is the fitness cost? Trends Parasitol 22 : 197–202. [Google Scholar]
  3. Nirmala X, James AA, 2003. Engineering Plasmodium-refractory phenotypes in mosquitoes. Trends Parasitol 19 : 384–387. [Google Scholar]
  4. Franz AW, Sanchez-Vargas I, Adelman ZN, Blair CD, Beaty BJ, James AA, Olson KE, 2006. Engineering RNA interference-based resistance to dengue virus type 2 in genetically-modified Aedes aegypti. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 : 4198–4203. [Google Scholar]
  5. Capurro M de Laro, Coleman J, Beerntsen BT, Myles KM, Olson KE, Rocha E, Krettli AU, James AA, 2000. Virus-expressed, recombinant single-chain antibody blocks sporozoite infection of salivary glands in Plasmodium gallinaceum-infected Aedes aegypti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 427–433. [Google Scholar]
  6. Warburg A, Touray M, Krettli AU, Miller LH, 1992. Plasmodium gallinaceum: antibodies to circumsporozoite protein prevent sporozoites from invading the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti. Exp Parasitol 75 : 303–307. [Google Scholar]
  7. Wendell MD, Wilson TG, Higgs S, Black WC, 2000. Chemical and gamma-ray mutagenesis of the white gene in Aedes aegypti. Insect Mol Biol 9 : 119–125. [Google Scholar]
  8. Munstermann LE, 1997. The Molecular Biology of Insect Disease Vectors. London: Chapman and Hall.
  9. Kokoza V, Ahmed A, Cho WL, Jasinskiene N, James AA, Raikhel A, 2000. Engineering blood meal-activated systemic immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97 : 9144–9149. [Google Scholar]
  10. Davis I, Girdham CH, O’Farrell PH, 1995. A nuclear GFP that marks nuclei in living Drosophila embryos: Maternal supply overcomes a delay in the appearance of zygotic fluorescence. Dev Biol 170 : 726–729. [Google Scholar]
  11. Perera OP, Harrell RA II, Handler AM, 2002. Germ-line transformation of the South American malaria vector, Anopheles albimanus, with a piggyBac/EGFP transposon vector is routine and highly efficient. Insect Mol Biol 11 : 291–297. [Google Scholar]
  12. Lowenberger CA, Smartt CT, Bulet P, Ferdig MT, Severson DW, Hoffmann JA, Christensen BM, 1999. Insect immunity: molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNA encoding three isoforms of insect defensin in Aedes aegypti. Insect Mol Biol 8 : 107–118. [Google Scholar]
  13. James AA, Blackmer K, Racioppi JV, 1989. A salivary gland-specific, maltase-like gene of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Gene 75 : 73–83. [Google Scholar]
  14. Horn C, Wimmer EA, 2000. A versatile vector set for animal transgenesis. Dev Genes Evol 210 : 630–637. [Google Scholar]
  15. Jasinskiene N, Coates CJ, Benedict MQ, Cornel AJ, Rafferty CS, James AA, Collins FH, 1998. Stable transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes element from the housefly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95 : 3743–3747. [Google Scholar]
  16. Coates CJ, Schaub TL, Besansky NJ, Collins FH, James AA, 1997. The white gene from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Insect Mol Biol 6 : 291–299. [Google Scholar]
  17. O’Brochta DA, Warren WD, Saville KJ, Atkinson PW, 1996. Hermes, a functional non-Drosophilid insect gene vector from Musca domestica. Genetics 142 : 907–914. [Google Scholar]
  18. Bourel D, Teillaud JL, 2006. Monoclonal antibodies: technology around the clock for new therapeutic hopes. C R Biol 329 : 217–227. [Google Scholar]
  19. Kim SJ, Park Y, Hong HJ, 2005. Antibody engineering for the development of therapeutic antibodies. Mol Cells 20 : 17–29. [Google Scholar]
  20. Pleass RJ, Holder AA, 2005. Opinion: antibody-based therapies for malaria. Nat Rev Microbiol 3 : 893–899. [Google Scholar]
  21. Yoshida S, Ioka D, Matsuoka H, Endo H, Ishii A, 2001. Bacteria-expressing single-chain immunotoxin inhibit malaria parasite development in mosquitoes. Mol Biochem Parasitol 113 : 89–96. [Google Scholar]
  22. Li F, Patra KP, Vinetz JM, 2005. An anti-Chitinase malaria transmission-blocking single-chain antibody as an effector molecule for creating a Plasmodium falciparum-refractory mosquito. J Infect Dis 192 : 878–887. [Google Scholar]
  23. Ito J, Ghosh A, Moreira LA, Wimmer EA, Jacobs-Lorena M, 2002. Transgenic Anopheline mosquitoes impaired in transmission of a malaria parasite. Nature 417 : 452–455. [Google Scholar]
  24. Moreira LA, Ito J, Ghosh A, Devenport M, Zieler H, Abraham EG, Crisanti A, Nolan T, Catteruccia F, Jacobs-Lorena M, 2002. Bee venom phospholipase inhibits malaria parasite development in transgenic mosquitoes. J Biol Chem 277 : 40839–40843. [Google Scholar]
  25. Raikhel AS, Kokoza VA, Zhu J, Martin D, Wang SF, Li C, Sun G, Ahmed A, Dittmer N, Attardo G, 2002. Molecular biology of mosquito vitellogenesis: from basic studies to genetic engineering of antipathogen immunity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32 : 1275–1286. [Google Scholar]
  26. Marinotti O, Calvo E, Nguyen QK, Dissanayake S, Ribeiro JMC, James AA, 2006. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in adult Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol Biol 15 : 1–12. [Google Scholar]
  27. Chen X-G, Marinotti O, Whitman L, Jasinskiene N, James AA, 2007. The Anopheles gambiae vitellogenin gene (VgT2) promoter directs persistent accumulation of a reporter gene product in transgenic Anopheles stephensi following multiple blood-meals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 : 1118–1124. [Google Scholar]
  28. Ungureanu E, Killick-Kendrick R, Garnham PC, Branzei P, Romanescu C, Shute PG, 1977. Pre-patent periods of a tropical strain of Plasmodium vivax after inoculations of ten-fold dilutions of sporozoites. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 70 : 482–483. [Google Scholar]
  29. James AA, 2003. Blocking malaria parasite invasion of mosquito salivary glands. J Exp Biol 206 : 3817–3821. [Google Scholar]
  30. Adelman ZN, Jasinskiene N, James AA, 2002. Development and applications of transgenesis in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Mol Biochem Parasitol 121 : 1–10. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1072
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.1072
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Dec 2006
  • Accepted : 31 Jan 2007

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error