Volume 75, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Urinary schistosomiasis remains a significant burden for Africa and the Middle East. Success of regional control strategies will depend, in part, on what influence local environmental and behavioral factors have on individual risk for primary infection and/or reinfection. Based on experience in a multi-year (1984–1992), school-based control program in Coast Province, Kenya, we examined risk for infection outcomes as a function of age, sex, pretreatment morbidity, treatment regimen, water contact, and residence location, with the use of life tables and Cox proportional-hazards analysis. After adjustment, location of residence, age less than 12 years, pretreatment hematuria, and incomplete treatment were the significant independent predictors of infection, whereas sex and frequency of water contact were not. We conclude that local physical features and age-related factors play a predominant role in transmission in this setting. In large population-based control programs, treatment allocation strategies may need to be tailored to local conditions on a village-by-village basis.


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  • Received : 11 Nov 2005
  • Accepted : 23 Feb 2006

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