Volume 75, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A longitudinal study on malaria was carried out from 2003 to 2005 in an area of unstable malaria in the Panna district in central India. Both and were prevalent; however, the risk of malaria was 31.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 29.6–33.6%), which is four times higher compared with that of malaria (7.8%, 95% CI = 6.7–9%). An increasing trend was recorded in malaria prevalence from 30.2% in 2003 to 46.6% in 2004 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6–2.5) that increased to 58.6% in 2005 (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.1). This increase was statistically significant (χ = 120.5, degrees of freedom = 2, < 0.0001). was the dominant vector of malaria and showed partial (< 50%) resistance to DDT, which indicated that DDT can still be used. Improved access to treatment facilities, combination therapy, and vector control appears to be the most promising method for controlling malaria in this region.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Pattanayak S, Sharma VP, Kalra NL, Orlov VS, Sharma RS, 1994. Malaria paradigms in India and control strategies. Indian J Malariol 31 : 141–199. [Google Scholar]
  2. Molineaux L, Gramiccia G, 1980. The Garki Project, Research on the Epidemiology and Control of Malaria in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  3. Theander TG, 1998. Unstable malaria in Sudan. The influence of the dry season. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 589–592. [Google Scholar]
  4. Luxemburger C, Thwai KL, White NJ, Webster HK, Kyle DE, Maelankirn L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nosten F, 1996. The epidemiology of malaria in a Karen population on the western border of Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  5. Worrall E, Rietveld A, Delacollett C, 2004. The burden of malaria epidemics and cost-effectiveness of interventions in epidemic situations in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 136–140. [Google Scholar]
  6. Singh N, Nagpal AC, Saxena A, Singh MP, 2004. Changing scenario of malaria in central India, the replacement of Plasmodium vivax by Plasmodium falciparum (1986–2000). Trop Med Int Health 9 : 364–371. [Google Scholar]
  7. Singh N, Saxena A, 2003. Usefulness of a rapid on site Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis (Paracheck® Pf) in forest migrants and among the indigenous population at the site of their occupational activities in central India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 : 26–29. [Google Scholar]
  8. Singh N, Chand SK, Mishra AK, Nagpal AC, 2004. Migration malaria associated with forest economy in central India. Curr Sci 87 : 1696–1699. [Google Scholar]
  9. Singh J, Bhattacharji LM, 1944. Rapid staining of malaria parasites by a water soluble stain. Indian Med Gaz 79 : 102–104. [Google Scholar]
  10. World Health Organization, 1975. Manual on Practical Entomology in Malaria. Part II. Geneva; World Health Organization. Offset publication 13.
  11. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, 1987. Malaria and its control: present situation and future prospects. Annu Rev Public Health 8 : 75–110. [Google Scholar]
  12. Singh N, Mishra SS, Singh MP, Sharma VP, 2000. Seasonality of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in tribal villages in central India (1987–1995). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 94 : 101–112. [Google Scholar]
  13. Akim NI, Drakeley C, Kingo T, Simon B, Senkoro K, Sauerwein RW, 2000. Dynamics of P. falciparum gametocytemia in symptomatic patients in an area of intense perennial transmission in Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 : 199–203. [Google Scholar]
  14. Roper MH, Rebeca S, Carrion T, Claudio G, Cava G, Ellen M, Andersen JS, Arambusa G, Carlos C, Allen WH, Alan JM, 2000. The epidemiology of malaria in an epidemic area of the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 247–256. [Google Scholar]
  15. Raghavendra K, Subbarao SK, 2002. Chemical insecticides in malaria vector control in India. ICMR Bull 32 : 94–99. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gunasekaran K, Sahu SS, Jambulingam P, Das PK, 2005. DDT indoor residual spray, still an effective tool to control Anopheles fluviatilis transmitted Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India. Trop Med Int Health 10 : 160–168. [Google Scholar]
  17. Anonymous, 2004. Evaluation of the Impact of DDT and Malathion Indoor Residual Spraying Being Used in Malaria and Kala-Azar Control Programmes on the Disease Prevalence. Delhi: Malaria Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research).
  18. Sharma VP, Upretty HC, Nutan N, Raina VK, Parida SK, Gupta VK, 1982. Impact of DDT spraying on malaria transmission in villages with resistant Anopheles culicifacies. Indian J Malariol 19 : 5–12. [Google Scholar]
  19. Curtis CF, 2002. Restoration of malaria control in the Madagascar highlands by DDT spraying. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 1. [Google Scholar]
  20. Curtis CF, Lines JD, 2000. Should DDT be banned by international treaty? Parasitol Today 16 : 119–121. [Google Scholar]
  21. Longnecker MP, 2005. Invited commentary: why DDT matters now. Am J Epidemiol 162 : 726–728. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Mar 2006
  • Accepted : 08 Jun 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error