Volume 75, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Correlation studies on the drug response of field isolates of and molecular markers for drug resistance are becoming important as many malaria control programs abandon monotherapies and resort to combination therapies. The standardization and optimization of the drug sensitivity assay are one of the prerequisites for validating molecular markers in the field. The present study was designed to assess and compare the growth of freshly obtained isolates for at least the first erythrocytic cycle in various culture media and determine the response to chloroquine in alternative media. Parasite growth was consistently higher in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DME)–human serum, Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM)–human serum, RPMI 1640 medium–goat serum, and a serum-free medium containing 1:1 (v/v) mixture of IMDM and F-12 supplemented with an ammonium sulfate fraction of adult bovine serum than in RPMI 1640 medium–human serum mixture. The level of chloroquine response determined in human serum-supplemented DME, IMDM, and RPMI 1640 media did not differ significantly ( > 0.05) from the control (RPMI 1640–human serum). This study suggests that alternative media may be used to optimize parasite growth during the critical initial phase of transition from to conditions. The capacity of these media to support long-term cultivation of requires further investigation.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 2003. Assessment and Monitoring of Antimalarial Drug Efficacy for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/HTM/RBM/2003.50.
  2. Basco L, Ringwald P, 2000. Chimiorésistance du paludisme: problèmes de la définition et de l’approche technique. Cah Sante 10 : 47–50. [Google Scholar]
  3. White NJ, 1998. Preventing antimalarial drug resistance through combinations. Drug Resist Update 1 : 3–9. [Google Scholar]
  4. Trager W, Jensen JB, 1976. Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science 193 : 673–675. [Google Scholar]
  5. Mount DL, Nahlen BL, Patchen LC, Churchill FC, 1989. Adaptations of the Saker-Solomons test: simple, reliable colorimetric field assays for chloroquine and its metabolites in urine. Bull World Health Organ 67 : 295–300. [Google Scholar]
  6. Basco LK, 2004. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XX. Experimental studies on various factors of in vitro drug sensitivity assays using fresh isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 474–480. [Google Scholar]
  7. Desjardins RE, Canfield CJ, Haynes JD, Chulay JD, 1979. Quantitative assessment of antimalarial activity in vitro by a semiautomated microdilution technique. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 16 : 710–718. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ringwald P, Basco LK, 1999. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon. Bull World Health Organ 77 : 34–43. [Google Scholar]
  9. Basco LK, Ndounga M, Keundjian A, Ringwald P, 2002. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. IX. Characteristics of recrudescent and persistent Plasmodium falciparum infections after chloroquine or amodiaquine treatment in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 117–123. [Google Scholar]
  10. Haynes JD, Diggs CL, Hines FA, Desjardins RE, 1976. Culture of human malaria parasites (P. falciparum). Nature 263 : 767–769. [Google Scholar]
  11. Divo AA, Jensen JB, 1982. Studies on serum requirements for the cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum. II. Medium enrichment. Bull World Health Organ 60 : 571–575. [Google Scholar]
  12. Tan-ariya P, Brockelman CR, 1983. Continuous cultivation and improved drug responsiveness of Plasmodium falciparum in p-aminobenzoic acid-deficient medium. J Parasitol 69 : 353–359. [Google Scholar]
  13. Asahi H, Kanazawa T, 1994. Continuous cultivation of intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum in a serum-free medium with the use of a growth-promoting factor. Parasitology 109 : 397–401. [Google Scholar]
  14. Srivastava K, Puri SK, 2004. Plasmodium falciparum: modified medium composition supports continuous cultivation with foetal bovine serum. Exp Parasitol 108 : 74–75. [Google Scholar]
  15. Binh VQ, Luty AJF, Kremsner PG, 1997. Differential effects of human serum and cells on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum adapted to serum-free in vitro culture conditions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 : 594–600. [Google Scholar]
  16. Cranmer SL, Magowan C, Liang J, Coppel RL, Cooke BM, 1997. An alternative to serum for cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 363–365. [Google Scholar]
  17. Basco LK, 2003. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XV. Experimental studies on serum substitutes and supplements and alternative culture media for in vitro drug sensitivity assays using fresh isolates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 : 168–173. [Google Scholar]
  18. Kim HS, Miyake H, Arai M, Wataya Y, 1998. A potent antimalarial activity of 5-fluoroorotate in combination with sulfamonomethoxine against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei in mice. Parasitol Int 47 : 59–67. [Google Scholar]
  19. Ringwald P, Meche FS, Bickii J, Basco LK, 1999. In vitro culture and drug sensitivity assay of Plasmodium falciparum with non-serum substitute and acute phase sera. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 700–705. [Google Scholar]
  20. Basco LK, 2003. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XVII. Baseline monitoring of atovaquone-resistant Plasmodium falciparum by in vitro drug assays and cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 : 179–183. [Google Scholar]
  21. Oduola AM, Alexander BM, Weatherly NF, Bowdre JH, Desjardins RE, 1985. Use of non-human plasma for in vitro cultivation and antimalarial drug susceptibility testing of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34 : 209–215. [Google Scholar]
  22. Sax LJ, Rieckmann KH, 1980. Use of rabbit serum in the cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum. J Parasitol 66 : 621–624. [Google Scholar]
  23. Butcher GA, 1979. Factors affecting the in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi. Bull World Health Organ 57 (suppl 1) : 17–26. [Google Scholar]
  24. Jensen JB, 1979. Some aspects of serum requirements for continuous cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum. Bull World Health Organ 57 (suppl 1) : 27–31. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 May 2005
  • Accepted : 02 Aug 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error