Volume 75, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Domestic dogs were used as natural sentinels to assess prospectively the long-term impact of selective, community-based spraying with pyrethroid insecticides after community-wide spraying on transmission of in rural villages under surveillance between 1992 and 2002. In 2000 and 2002 light infestations by were recorded, and 523 dogs and cats were examined serologically or by xenodiagnosis. The prevalence of infection in dogs decreased from 65% at baseline to 8.9% and 4.7% at 7.5 and 10 years after sustained vector surveillance, respectively. The average annual force of infection dropped 260-fold from 72.7 per 100 dog-years at baseline to <0.3% in 2002, as determined prospectively and retrospectively from the age-prevalence curve of native dogs born during surveillance. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that prevalent cases in dogs in 2000 and 2002 were associated positively and significantly with the peak number of caught in domestic areas at the dog’s compound during its lifetime. The sustained decline in infections in dogs and cats is the result of selective, community-based insecticide spraying that kept the abundance of infected at marginal levels, fast host population turnover, and low immigration rates from areas with active transmission.


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  • Received : 16 Jan 2006
  • Accepted : 06 May 2006

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