1921
Volume 75, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Annual leishmanin skin test (LST) surveys were conducted in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic Bangladeshi community from 2002 through 2004, using antigen from the same manufacturer and batch. In 2002, 530 (35%) of 1,532 had positive LST results; the prevalence increased with increasing age. The LST result was positive in 24 (51%) of 47, 18 (72%) of 25, and 11 (85%) of 13 kala-azar patients treated in the previous 1–11, 12–23, and 24–35 months. A positive LST result in 2002 was associated with protection against subsequent kala-azar ( < 0.0001). In 2003–2004, decreased antigen sensitivity was observed. Among 686 participants, 34% were LST-positive in 2002, 29% in 2003, and 19% in 2004. Of 63 cured kala-azar patients, 70% were positive in 2002, 53% in 2003, and only 30% in 2004. Among 171 participants tested with both antigens, study antigen sensitivity was 70% compared with antigen. Our data underscore the need for better production, standardization, and documentation of sensitivity, potency, and stability of leishmanin antigens.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.744
2006-10-01
2017-09-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/75/4/0750744.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.744&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ali A, Ashford RW, 1993. Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. I. Cross-sectional leishmanin skin test in an endemic locality. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 87 : 157–161.
  2. Ali A, Ashford RW, 1993. Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. II. Annual leishmanin transformation in a population. Is positive leishmanin reaction a life- long phenomenon? Ann Trop Med Parasitol 87 : 163–167.
  3. Bettini S, Gramiccia M, Gradoni L, Pozio E, Mugnai S, Maroli M, 1983. Leishmaniasis in Tuscany (Italy): VIII. Human population response to leishmanin in the focus of Monte Argentario (Grosseto) and epidemiological evaluation. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 58 : 539–547.
  4. Davies CR, Llanos-Cuentas EA, Pyke SD, Dye C, 1995. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes: an epidemiological study of infection and immunity. Epidemiol Infect 114 : 297–318.
  5. Dye C, Williams BG, 1993. Malnutrition, age and the risk of parasitic disease: visceral leishmaniasis revisited. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 254 : 33–39.
  6. el-Safi SH, Hamid N, Omer A, Abdel-Haleem A, Hammad A, Kareem HG, Boelaert M, 2004. Infection rates with Leishmania donovani and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a village in eastern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 1305–1311.
  7. Gramiccia M, Bettini S, Gradoni L, Ciarmoli P, Verrilli ML, Loddo S, Cicalo C, 1990. Leishmaniasis in Sardinia. 5. Leishmanin reaction in the human population of a focus of low endemicity of canine leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 : 371–374.
  8. Hailu A, Berhe N, Sisay Z, Abraham I, Medhin G, 1996. Seroepidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis in south and southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 34 : 11–23.
  9. Marty P, Le Fichoux Y, Giordana D, Brugnetti A, 1992. Leishmanin reaction in the human population of a highly endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, France. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 : 249–250.
  10. Moral L, Rubio EM, Moya M, 2002. A leishmanin skin test survey in the human population of l’Alacanti region (Spain): implications for the epidemiology of Leishmania infantum infection in southern Europe. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 : 129–132.
  11. Nandy A, Neogy AB, Chowdhury AB, 1987. Leishmanin test survey in an endemic village of Indian kala-azar near Calcutta. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 81 : 693–699.
  12. Pampiglione S, Manson-Bahr PE, La Placa M, Borgatti MA, Musumeci S, 1975. Studies in Mediterranean leishmaniasis. 3. The leishmanin skin test in kala-azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 69 : 60–68.
  13. Schaefer KU, Kurtzhals JA, Kager PA, Gachihi GS, Gramiccia M, Kagai JM, Sherwood JA, Muller AS, 1994. Studies on the prevalence of leishmanin skin test positivity in the Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 : 78–84.
  14. Montenegro J, 1926. Cutaneous reaction in leishmaniasis. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 13 : 187–194.
  15. Manson-Bahr PEC, Heisch RB, Garnham PCC, 1959. Studies in leishmaniasis in east Africa. The Montenegro test in kala-azar in Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 53 : 380–383.
  16. Pearson RD, Jeronimo SMB, de Queiroz Sousa A, 1999. Leishmaniasis. Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 797–813.
  17. Zijlstra EE, el-Hassan AM, 2001. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. Visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 (Suppl 1): S27–S58.
  18. Bern C, Hightower AW, Chowdhury R, Ali M, Amann J, Wagatsuma Y, Haque R, Kurkjian K, Vaz LE, Begum M, Akter T, Cetre-Sossah CB, Ahluwalia BI, Dotson E, Secor WE, Breiman RF, Maguire JH, 2005. Risk factors for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 655–662.
  19. Bern C, Jha SN, Joshi AB, Thakur GD, Bista MB, 2000. Use of the recombinant K39 dipstick test and the direct agglutination test in a setting endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 : 153–157.
  20. Sundar S, Reed SG, Singh VP, Kumar PC, Murray HW, 1998. Rapid accurate field diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet 351 : 563–565.
  21. Melo MN, Mayrink W, da Costa CA, Magalhaes PA, Dias M, Williams P, Araujo FG, Coelho MV, Batista SM, 1977. Standardization of the Montenegro antigen. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 19 : 161–164.
  22. Sokal JE, 1975. Editorial: measurement of delayed skin-test responses. N Engl J Med 293 : 501–502.
  23. Weigle KA, Valderrama L, Arias AL, Santrich C, Saravia NG, 1991. Leishmanin skin test standardization and evaluation of safety, dose, storage, longevity of reaction and sensitization. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 : 260–271.
  24. Reed SG, Badaro R, Masur H, Carvalho EM, Lorenco R, Lisboa A, Teixeira R, Johnson WD Jr, Jones TC, 1986. Selection of a skin test antigen for American visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35 : 79–85.
  25. Zijlstra EE, el-Hassan AM, Ismael A, Ghalib HW, 1994. Endemic kala-azar in eastern Sudan: a longitudinal study on the incidence of clinical and subclinical infection and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 826–836.
  26. Manson-Bahr PEC, 1961. Immunity in kala-azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 55 : 550–555.
  27. Zijlstra EE, el-Hassan AM, 1993. Leishmanin and tuberculin sensitivity in leishmaniasis in the Sudan, with special reference to kala-azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 : 425–427.
  28. Neogy AB, Nandy A, Dastidar BG, Chowdhury AB, 1986. Leishmanin test in Indian kala-azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80 : 454–455.
  29. De Luca PM, Mayrink W, Santiago MA, Nogueira R, Conceicao-Silva F, Melo G, Mendonca SC, 2003. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the immunogenicity of the leishmanin skin test. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 709–712.
  30. Abramson MA, Dietze R, Frucht DM, Schwantz R, Kenney RT, 1995. Comparison of New and Old World leishmanins in an endemic region of Brazil. Clin Infect Dis 20 : 1292–1297.
  31. Seaman J, Mercer AJ, Sondorp E, 1996. The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in western Upper Nile, southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994. Int J Epidemiol 25 : 862–871.
  32. Khalil EA, Zijlstra EE, Kager PA, El Hassan AM, 2002. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Leishmania donovani infection in two villages in an endemic area in eastern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 35–44.
  33. da Costa CA, de Toledo VP, Enaro O, Williams P, Mayrink W, 1996. Montenegro skin test—evaluation of the composition and stability of the antigen preparation. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91 : 193–194.
  34. Pai M, Gokhale K, Joshi R, Dogra S, Kalantri S, Mendiratta DK, Narang P, Daley CL, Granich RM, Mazurek GH, Reingold AL, Riley LW, Colford JM Jr, 2005. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers in rural India: comparison of a whole-blood interferon gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing. JAMA 293 : 2746–2755.
  35. World Health Organization Southeast Asia Regional Office, 2005. Press release: elimination of kala-azar from endemic countries in the south-east Asia region: health ministers sign memorandum of understanding. Available from http://w3.whosea.org/EN/Section316/Section503/Section1861_9726.htm09/06/2005.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.744
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.744
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 Apr 2006
  • Accepted : 04 Jun 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error