1921
Volume 75, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

A total of 56 fleas were collected from mice, rats, and one hedgehog in national parks of mainland Portugal and the Madeira Island. All fleas were tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera and using PCR assays. In fleas from mainland Portugal, we detected in one flea and in one . In five fleas taken from rats in the Madeira Island, we identified . In addition, in four fleas from the genera and collect from mice and a rat in mainland Portugal, we detected the presence of two new genotypes closely related to . Our findings emphasize the potential risk of flea-transmitted infections in mainland Portugal and the Madeira archipelago, and extend our knowledge of the potential flea vectors of human pathogens.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.727
2006-10-01
2019-04-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/75/4/0750727.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.727&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Butler T, 1989. The Black Death past and present. 1. Plague in the 1980s. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83 : 458–460. [Google Scholar]
  2. Azad AF, Radulovic S, Higgins JA, Noden BH, Troyer JM, 1997. Flea-borne rickettsioses: ecologic considerations. Emerg Infect Dis 3 : 319–327. [Google Scholar]
  3. Rolain JM, Franc M, Davoust B, Raoult D, 2003. Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana, B. koehlerae, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, Rickettsia felis, and Wolbachia pipientis in cat fleas, France. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 338–342. [Google Scholar]
  4. Breitschwerdt EB, Kordick DL, 2000. Bartonella infection in animals: carriership, reservoir potential, pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for human infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 13 : 428–438. [Google Scholar]
  5. Cutileiro J, 1940. Um caso de Rickettsiose (tifo murino). Lisboa Médica. 17 : 445–458. [Google Scholar]
  6. Fonseca F, Pinto M. Tifo Exantemático. II Tifo endémico ou murino. Medicina Comtemporanea. 1942; nb 13,14,15.
  7. Andre E, Correia R, Castro P, Neto M, Roler J, Bacellar F, Oliveira I, Velosa I, Feio A, Filipe A, 1998. Tifo Murino em Portugal. Acta Med Port 11 : 81–85. [Google Scholar]
  8. Freitas E, Freitas L, Barros A, Bacellar F, Filipe A, Almeida V, Ferreira C Armindo F, Borges F, 1997. Murine typhus: an outbreak in Porto Santo Island-Madeira Archipelago. Eur J Int Med 8 : 120. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bacellar F, Lencastre I, Filipe AR, 1998. Is Murine typhus re-emerging in Portugal. Eurosurveillance. 3 : 18–20. [Google Scholar]
  10. Azad AF, 1990. Epidemiology of murine typhus. Annu Rev Entomol 35 : 553–569. [Google Scholar]
  11. Schriefer ME, Sacci JB Jr, Taylor JP, Higgins JA, Azad AF, Boostrom A, 1994. Murine typhus: updated roles of multiple urban components and a second typhus-like rickettsia. J Med Entomol 31 : 681–685. [Google Scholar]
  12. Adams JR, Schmidtmann ET, Azad AF, 1990. Infection of colonized cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), with a Rickettsia-like microorganism. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43 : 400–409. [Google Scholar]
  13. Richter J, Fournier PE, Petridou J, Haussinger D, Raoult D, 2002. Rickettsia felis infection acquired in Europe and documented by polymerase chain reaction. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 207–208. [Google Scholar]
  14. Zavala-Velazquez JE, Ruiz-Sosa JA, Sanchez-Elias RA, Becerra-Carmona G, Walker DH, 2000. Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis in Yucatan. Lancet 356 : 1079–1080. [Google Scholar]
  15. Raoult D, La Scola B, Enea M, Fournier PE, Roux V, Fenollar F, Galvão MA, de Lamballerie X, 2001. A flea-associated Rickettsia pathogenic for humans. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 73–81. [Google Scholar]
  16. Blair PJ, Jiang J, Schoeler GB, Moron C, Anaya E, Cespedes M, Cruz C, Felices V, Guevara C, Mendoza L, Villaseca P, Sumner JW, Richards AL, Olson JG, 2004. Characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in flea and tick specimens from northern Peru. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 4961–4967. [Google Scholar]
  17. Kelly PJ, Meads N, Theobald A, Fournier PE, Raoult D, 2004. Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and B. clarridgeiae, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 967–968. [Google Scholar]
  18. Parola P, Miller RS, McDaniel P, Telford SR 3rd, Rolain JM, Wongsrichanalai C, Raoult D, 2003. Emerging rickettsioses of the Thai-Myanmar border. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 592–595. [Google Scholar]
  19. Shaw SE, Kenny MJ, Tasker S, Birtles RJ, 2004. Pathogen carriage by the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) in the United Kingdom. Vet Microbiol 102 : 183–188. [Google Scholar]
  20. Bitam I, Parola P, De La Cruz KD, Matsumoto K, Baziz B, Rolain JM, Belkaid M, Raoult D, 2006. First molecular detection of rickettsia felis in fleas from Algeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 532–535. [Google Scholar]
  21. Jacomo V, Kelly PJ, Raoult D, 2002. Natural history of Bartonella infections (an exception to Koch’s postulate). Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9 : 8–18. [Google Scholar]
  22. Anderson BE, Neuman MA, 1997. Bartonella spp. as emerging human pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev 10 : 203–219. [Google Scholar]
  23. Ellis BA, Regnery RL, Beati L, Bacellar F, Rood M, Glass GG, Marston E, Ksiazek TG, Jones D, Childs JE, 1999. Rats of the genus Rattus are reservoir hosts for pathogenic Bartonella species: an Old World origin for a New World disease? J Infect Dis 180 : 220–224. [Google Scholar]
  24. Bown KJ, Bennet M, Begon M, 2004. Flea-borne Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella taylorii in bank voles. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 684–687. [Google Scholar]
  25. Alekseev A, Dubinina H, Van De Pol I, Schouls L, 2001. Identification of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks in the Baltic Regions of Russia. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 2237–2242. [Google Scholar]
  26. Roux V, Rydkina E, Eremeeva M, Raoult D, 1997. Citrate synthase gene comparison, a new tool for phylogenetic analysis, and its application for the rickettsiae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 : 252–261. [Google Scholar]
  27. Roux V, Raoult D, 1995. The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species is longer than usually described in other bacteria. Gene 156 : 107–111. [Google Scholar]
  28. Roux V, Raoult D, 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the genus Rickettsia using the gene encoding the outer-membrane protein rOmpB (ompB). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50 : 1449–1455. [Google Scholar]
  29. Norman AF, Regnery R, Jameson P, Greene C, Krause DC, 1995. Differentiation of Bartonella-like isolates at the species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in the citrate synthase gene. J Clin Microbiol 33 : 1797–1803. [Google Scholar]
  30. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ, 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215 : 403–410. [Google Scholar]
  31. Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen I, Nei M, 2001. MEGA 2.1: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software. Department of Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz.
  32. Santos-Silva M, Bacellar F, Filipe A, 1998. O tifo murino na ilha de Porto Santo I. Espécies de Sifonápteros (Insecta: siphonaptera) capturadas em roedores do género Rattus. Actualização dos conhecimentos. Rev Port Cien Vet 525 : 51–54. [Google Scholar]
  33. Azad AF, Traub R, 1987. Transmission of murine typhus rickettsiae by Leptopsylla segnis (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). J Med Entomol 24 : 689–693. [Google Scholar]
  34. Farhang-Azad A, Traub R, Wisseman CL Jr, 1983. Rickettsia mooseri infection in the fleas Leptopsylla segnis and Xenopsylla cheopis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 : 1392–1400. [Google Scholar]
  35. Stevenson HL, Labruna MB, Montenieri JA, Kosoy MY, Gage KL, Walker DH, 2005. Detection of Rickettsia felis in a New World Flea Species, Anomiopsyllus nudata (Siphonaptera. Ctenophthalmidae. J. Med. Entomol. 42 : 163–167. [Google Scholar]
  36. Riley PY, Chomel BB, 2005. Hedgehog Zoonoses. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1–5. [Google Scholar]
  37. Daly JS, Worthington MG, Brenner DJ, Moss CW, Hollis DG, Weyant RS, Steigerwalt AG, Weaver RE, Daneshvar MI, O’Connor SP, 1993. Rochalimaea elizabethae sp. nov. isolated from a patient with endocarditis. J Clin Microbiol 31 : 872–881. [Google Scholar]
  38. Comer JA, Flynn C, Regnery RL, Vlahov D, Childs JE, 1996. Antibodies to Bartonella species in inner-city intravenous drug users in Baltimore, MD. Arch Intern Med 156 : 2491–2495. [Google Scholar]
  39. Birtles RJ, Raoult D, 1996. Comparison of partial citrate synthase gene (gltA) sequences for phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46 : 891–897. [Google Scholar]
  40. Birtles RJ, Canales J, Ventosilla P, Alvarez E, Guerra H, Llanos-Cuentas A, Raoult D, Doshi N, Harrison TG, 1999. Survey of Bartonella species infecting intradomicillary animals in the Huayllacallan Valley, Ancash, Peru, a region endemic for human bartonellosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 799–805. [Google Scholar]
  41. Ying B, Kosoy MY, Maupin GO, Tsuchiya KR, Gage KL, 2002. Genetic and ecologic characteristics of Bartonella communities in rodents in southern China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 622–627. [Google Scholar]
  42. Castle KT, Kosoy M, Lerdthusnee K, Phelan L, Bai Y, Gage KL, Leepitakrat W, Monkanna T, Khlaimanee N, Chandranoi K, Jones JW, Coleman RE, 2004. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 429–433. [Google Scholar]
  43. Pretorius AM, Beati L, Birtles RJ, 2004. Diversity of bartonellae associated with small mammals inhabiting Free State Province, South Africa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54 : 1959–1967. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.727
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.727
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Oct 2005
  • Accepted : 05 May 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error