Volume 75, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


This survey was designed to evaluate the prevalence of infection in asymptomatic children from families of low and high socioeconomic status living in two neighboring communities in Teresina in northeastern Brazil. The study included 303 children, 163 (53.8%) males and 140 (46.2%) females, ranging in age from 6 months to 12 years. status was determined by the stool antigens test, in which sensitivity and specificity values for Brazilian children were 96.9% and 100%, respectively. The prevalence rates were 55.0% (93 of 169) and 16.4% (22 of 134) for children of low and high socioeconomic status, respectively ( < 0.001). Infection with occurred early in life (before 2 years of age) in both groups (22.9% versus 14.3%; = 0.061) and increased as the children became older. The rate of infection in children 11–12 years of age living in the poor area was as high as the levels found in Brazilian adults. An improved standard of living is followed by a sharp decrease in the prevalence rates in children, even in a developing country such as Brazil.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Torres J, Pérez-Pérez G, Goodman KJ, Atherton JC, Gold BD, Harris PR, Madrazo-de la Garza A, Guarner J, Muñoz O, 2000. A comprehensive review of the natural history of Helicobacter pylori in children. Arch Med Res 31 : 431–469.
  2. Czin SJ, 2005. Helicobacter pylori infection: detection, investigation, and management. J Pediatr 146 : S21–S26.
  3. Moayyedi P, Axon AT, Feltbower R, Duffett S, Crocombe W, Braunholtz D, Richards ID, Dowell AC, Forman D, 2002. Relation of adult lifestyle and socioeconomic factors to the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Int J Epidemiol 31 : 624–631.
  4. Opekun AR, Gilger MA, Denys SM, Nirken MH, Philip SP, Osato MS, Malaty HM, Hicks J, Grahan DY, 2000. Helicobacter pylori infection in children of Texas. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31 : 405–410.
  5. Suerbaum S, Michetti P, 2002. Helicobacter pylori infection. N Engl J Med 347 : 1175–1186.
  6. Thomas JE, Dale A, Harding M, Coward A, Cole TJ, Weaver LT, 1999. Helicobacter pylori colonization in early life. Pediatr Res 45 : 218–223.
  7. Rodrigues MN, Queiroz DM, Bezerra Filho JG, Pontes LK, Rodrigues RT, Braga LL, 2004. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children from an urban community in north-east Brazil and risk factors for infection. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16 : 201–205.
  8. Camargo CM, Lazcarro-Ponce E, Torres J, Velasco-Mondrigón Q, Correa P, 2004. Determinants of Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in Mexican adolescents. Helicobacter 9 : 106–114.
  9. Brown LM, Thomas TL, Ma J, Chang Y, You W, Liu W, Zhang L, Pee D, Gail MH, 2002. Helicobacter pylori infection in rural China: demografic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Int J Epidemiol 31 : 638–646.
  10. IBGE—Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Censo Demográfico, 2000 Database on the Internet. Rio de Janeiro: Available from http://www.ibge.gov.br/.
  11. Vaira D, Malfertheiner P, Mégraud F, Axon AT, Deltenre M, Hirschl AM, Gasbarrini G, O’Morain C, Garcia JM, Quina M, Tytgat GN, and the HpSA European study group, 1999. Diagnosis of Helicobacter infection with a new non-invasive antigen-based assay. Lancet 354 : 30–33.
  12. Oderda G, Rapa A, Ronchi B, Pastore LM, Staiano A, dé Angelis GL, Strisciuglio P, 2000. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool specimens by non-invasive antigen enzyme immunoassay in children: multicentre Italian study. BMJ 320 : 347–348.
  13. Cardinali LC, Rocha GA, Rocha AM, de Moura SB, Soares TF, Esteves AM, Nogueira AM, Cabral MM, de Carvalho AS, Bitencourt P, Ferreira A, Queiroz DM, 2003. Evaluation of [13C]-urea breath test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children from a developing country. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 3334–3335.
  14. Ndip RN, Malange AE, Akoachere JF, MacKay WG, Titanji VP, Weaver LT, 2004. Helicobacter pylori antigens in the faeces of asymptomatic children in the Buea and Limbe districts of Cameroon: a pilot study. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 1036–1040.
  15. Kehrt R, Becker M, Brösecke H, Krüger N, Helge H, 1997. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nicaraguan children with persistent diarrhea, diagnosed by the 13C-urea breath test. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 25 : 84–88.
  16. De Oliveira AM, Rocha GA, Queiroz DM, Moura SB, Rabello AL, 1999. Seroconvertion for Helicobacter pylori in adults from Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 : 261–263.
  17. Almeida Cunha RP, Alves FP, Rocha AM, Rocha GA, Camargo LMA, Nogueira PO, Camargo EP, Queiroz DM, 2003. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in native populations from Brazilian Western Amazon. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 382–386.
  18. Fernando N, Holton J, Zulu I, Vaira D, Mwaba P, Kelly P, 2001. Helicobacter pylori infection in an urban African population. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 1323–1327.
  19. Tindberg Y, Bengtsson C, Granath F, Blennow M, Nyrén O, Granström M, 2001. Helicobacter pylori infection in Swedish school children: lack of evidence of child-to-child transmission outside the family. Gastroenterology 121 : 310–316.
  20. Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Berg G, Knayer U, Gonser T, Adler G, Brenner H, 1999. Helicobacter pylori among preschool children and their parents: evidence of parent-child transmission. J Infect Dis 179 : 398–402.
  21. Goodman KJ, Correa P, 2000. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori among siblings. Lancet 355 : 358–362.
  22. Eslick GD, Yan P, Xia HH-X, Murray H, Spurrett B, Talley NJ, 2002. Foetal intrauterine growth restrictions with Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16 : 1677–1682.
  23. Kivi M, Tindberg Y, Sörberg M, Casswall TH, Befrits R, Hellström PM, Bengtsson C, Engstrand L, Granström M, 2003. Concordance op Helicobacter pylori strains within families. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 5604–5608.
  24. Begue R, Gonzales JL, Correa-Gracian H, Tang SC, 1998. Dietary risk factors associated with the transmission of Helicobacter pylori in Lima, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 637–640.
  25. Glynn MK, Friedman CR, Gold BD, Khanna B, Hutwagner L, Iihoshi N, Revollo C, Quick R, 2002. Seroincidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a cohort of rural Bolivian children: acquisition and analysis of possible risk factors. Clin Infect Dis 35 : 1059–1065.
  26. Mitchell HM, Li YY, Hu PJ, Liu Q, Chen M, Du GG, Wang ZJ, Lee A, Hazell SL, 1992. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in southern China: identification of early childhood as the critical period for acquisition. J Infect Dis 166 : 149–153.
  27. Rothenbacher D, Inceoglu J, Bode G, Brenner H, 2000. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection in a high-risk population occurs within the first 2 years of life. J Pediatr 136 : 744–748.
  28. Malaty HM, El-Kasabany A, Graham DY, Miller CC, Reddy SG, Srinivasan SR, Yamaoka Y, Berenson GS, 2002. age at acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection: a follow-up study from infancy to adulthood. Lancet 359 : 931–935.
  29. Everhart JE, Kruszon-Moran D, Perez-Perez GI, Tralka TS, Mc-Quillan G, 2000. Seroprevalence and ethnic differences in Helicobacter pylori infection among adults in the United States. J Infect Dis 181 : 1359–1363.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 Aug 2005
  • Accepted : 29 Mar 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error