Volume 75, Issue 2_suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Despite its key role in determining the stability and intensity of malaria transmission, the infectiousness of human populations to mosquitoes has rarely been estimated. Field-based analyses of malaria transmission have frequently relied on the prevalence of asexual parasites or gametocytes as proxies for infectiousness. We now summarize empirical data on human infectiousness from Africa and Papua New Guinea. Over a wide range of transmission intensities there is little relationship between the infectiousness of human populations to vector mosquitoes and mosquito-to-human transmission intensity. We compare these data with the predictions of a stochastic simulation model of epidemiology. This model predicted little variation in the infectiousness of the human population for entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs) greater than approximately 10 infectious bites per year, demonstrating that the lack of relationship between the EIR and the infectious reservoir can be explained without invoking any effects of acquired transmission-blocking immunity. The near absence of field data from areas with an EIR < 10 per year precluded validation of the model predictions for low EIR values. These results suggest that interventions reducing mosquito-to-human transmission will have little or no effect on human infectiousness at the levels of transmission found in most rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Unless very large reductions in transmission can be achieved, measures to prevent mosquito-to-human transmission need to be complemented with interventions that reduce the density or infectiousness of blood stage parasites.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Saul A, 1996. Transmission dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Today 12: 74–79. [Google Scholar]
  2. Molineaux L, Gramiccia G, 1980. The Garki Project. Geneva: World Health Organization
  3. Lengeler C, 2003. Insecticide-treated bednets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (2): CD000363. [Google Scholar]
  4. Smith T, Leuenberger R, Lengeler C, 2001. Child mortality and malaria transmission intensity in Africa. Trends Parasitol 17: 145–149. [Google Scholar]
  5. Killeen G, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna L, Knols B, 2002. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria control in Africa? Lancet Infect Dis 2: 618–627. [Google Scholar]
  6. Mabaso ML, Sharp B, Lengeler C, 2004. Historical review of malarial control in southern African with emphasis on the use of indoor residual house-spraying. Trop Med Int Health 9: 846–856. [Google Scholar]
  7. Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Singer B, 2001. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control. Trop Med Int Health 6: 677–687. [Google Scholar]
  8. Curtis CF, Mnzava AE, 2000. Comparison of house spraying and insecticide-treated nets for malaria control. Bull World Health Organ 78: 1389–1400. [Google Scholar]
  9. Sama W, Killeen G, Smith T, 2004. Estimating the duration of Plasmodium falciparum infection from trials of indoor residual spraying. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 625–634. [Google Scholar]
  10. Macdonald G, 1956. Theory of the eradication of malaria. Bull World Health Organ 15: 369–387 [Google Scholar]
  11. Binka F, Indome F, Smith T, 1998. Impact of spatial distribution of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on child mortality in rural northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 80–85. [Google Scholar]
  12. Howard SC, Omumbo J, Nevill C, Some ES, Donnelly CA, Snow R, 2000. Evidence for a mass community effect of insecticide-treated bednets on the incidence of malaria on the Kenyan coast. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 357–360. [Google Scholar]
  13. Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard P, ter Kuile F, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, Nahlen B, Gimnig JE, Kariuki SK, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, 2003. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl 4): 121–127. [Google Scholar]
  14. Richie TL, Saul A, 2002. Progress and challenges for malaria vaccines. Nature 415: 694–701. [Google Scholar]
  15. Halloran ME, Struchiner CJ, Spielman A, 1989. Modeling malaria vaccines. II: Population effects of stage-specific malaria vaccines dependent on natural boosting. Math Biosci 94: 115–149. [Google Scholar]
  16. Saul A, 1993. Minimal efficacy requirements for malarial vaccines to significantly lower transmission in epidemic or seasonal malaria. Acta Trop 52: 283–296. [Google Scholar]
  17. Maire N, Smith T, Ross A, Owusu-Agyei S, Dietz K, Molineaux L, 2006. A model for natural immunity to asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 (Suppl 2): 19–31. [Google Scholar]
  18. Ross A, Killeen GF, Smith T, 2006. Relationships between host infectivity to mosquitoes and asexual parasite density in Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 (Suppl 2): 32–37. [Google Scholar]
  19. Smith T, Maire N, Dietz K, Killeen GF, Vounatsou P, Molineaux L, Tanner M, 2006. Relationships between the entomologic inoculation rate and the force of infection for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 (Suppl 2): 11–18. [Google Scholar]
  20. Hay SI, Rogers DJ, Toomer JF, Snow R, 2000. Annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (EIR) across Africa: literature survey, Internet access and review. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 113–127. [Google Scholar]
  21. Beier JC, Killeen G, Githure JI, 1999. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 109–113. [Google Scholar]
  22. Graves PM, Burkot TR, Carter R, Cattani J, Lagog M, Parker J, Brabin B, Gibson FD, Bradley DJ, Alpers MP, 1988. Measurement of malarial infectivity of human populations to mosquitoes in the Madang area, Papua, New Guinea. Parasitology 96: 251–263. [Google Scholar]
  23. Burkot TR, Graves PM, Paru R, Battistutta D, Barnes A, Saul A, 1990. Variations in malaria transmission rates are not related to anopheline survivorship per feeding cycle. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 321–327. [Google Scholar]
  24. Boudin C, Olivier M, Molez JF, Chiron JP, Ambroise-Thomas P, 1993. High human malarial infectivity to laboratory-bred Anopheles gambiae in a village in Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48: 700–706. [Google Scholar]
  25. Githeko AK, Brandling-Bennett AD, Beier M, Atieli F, Owaga M, Collins FH, 1992. The reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86: 355–358. [Google Scholar]
  26. Muirhead-Thomson RC, 1957. The malarial infectivity of an African village population to mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae); a random xenodiagnostic survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6: 971–979. [Google Scholar]
  27. Bonnet S, Gouagna LC, Paul RE, Safeukui I, Meunier JY, Boudin C, 2003. Estimation of malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes in two neighbouring villages in south Cameroon: evaluation and comparison of several indices. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 53–59. [Google Scholar]
  28. Drakeley CJ, Akim NI, Sauerwein R, Greenwood BM, Targett G, 2000. Estimates of the infectious reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in The Gambia and in Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 472–476. [Google Scholar]
  29. Toure Y, Doumbo O, Toure A, Bagayogo M, Diallo M, Dolo A, Vernick KD, Keister DB, Muratova O, Kaslow DC, 1998. Gametocyte infectivity by direct mosquito feeds in an area of seasonal malaria transmission: implications for Bancoumana, Mali as a transmission-blocking vaccine site. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 481–486. [Google Scholar]
  30. Beier JC, Copeland RS, Mtalib R, Vaughan JA, 1992. Ookinete rates in Afrotropical anopheline mosquitoes as a measure of human malaria infectiousness. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 41–46. [Google Scholar]
  31. Charlwood JD, Smith T, Billingsley P, Takken W, Lyimo E, Meuwissen J, 1997. Survival and infection probabilities of anthropophagic anophelines from an area of high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in humans. Bull Entomol Res 87: 445–453. [Google Scholar]
  32. Saul A, Graves PM, Kay BH, 1990. A cyclical feeding model for pathogen transmission and its application to determine vectorial capacity from vector infection-rates. J Appl Ecol 27: 123–133. [Google Scholar]
  33. Graves PM, Burkot TR, Saul AJ, Hayes RJ, Carter R, 1990. Estimation of anopheline survival rate, vectorial capacity and mosquito infection probability from malaria vector infection-rates in villages near Madang, Papua New Guinea. J Appl Ecol 27: 134–147. [Google Scholar]
  34. Gillies MT, DeMeillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara. Johannesburg: The South African Institute for Medical Research.
  35. Charlwood JD, Graves PM, Birley MH, 1986. Capture-recapture studies with mosquitos of the group of Anopheles-Punctulatus Donitz (Diptera, Culicidae) from Papua New Guinea. Bull Entomol Res 76: 211–227. [Google Scholar]
  36. Gillies MT, Wilkes TJ, 1965. A study of the age-composition of populations of Anopheles gambiae Giles and A. funestus Giles in North-Eastern Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 56: 237–262. [Google Scholar]
  37. Lines J, Wilkes TJ, Lyimo E, 1991. Human malaria infectiousness measured by age-specific sporozoite rates in Anopheles gambiae in Tanzania. Parasitology 102: 167–177. [Google Scholar]
  38. Charlwood JD, Kihonda J, Sama S, Billingsley PF, Hadji H, Verhave JP, Lyimo E, Luttikhuizen PC, Smith T, 1995. The rise and fall of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera, Culicidae) in a Tanzanian village. Bull Entomol Res 85: 37–44. [Google Scholar]
  39. Smith T, Killeen G, Maire N, Ross A, Molineaux L, Tediosi F, Hutton G, Utzinger J, Dietz K, Tanner M, 2006. Mathematical modeling of the impact of malaria vaccines on the clinical epidemiology and natural history of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: overview. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 (Suppl 2): 1–10. [Google Scholar]
  40. Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 2003. A retrospective examination of mosquito infection on humans infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 366–371. [Google Scholar]
  41. Port GR, Boreham PFL, Bryan JH, 1980. The relationship of host size to feeding by mosquitos of the Anopheles gambiae Giles Complex (Diptera, Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res 70: 133–144. [Google Scholar]
  42. White GB, Boreham PFL, Magayuka SA, 1972. Comparative studies on sibling species of Anopheles gambiae Giles Complex (Dipt-Culicidae)—Bionomics and vectorial activity of species A and species B at Segera, Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 62: 295. [Google Scholar]
  43. White GB, 1974. Anopheles gambiae complex and disease transmission in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68: 278–301. [Google Scholar]
  44. Mboera LE, Magesa SM, 2001. The rise and fall of malarial sporozoite rates in Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in north-eastern Tanzania, between 1934 and 1999. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95: 325–330. [Google Scholar]
  45. Keiser J, Utzinger J, De Castro MC, Smith TA, Tanner M, Singer B, 2004. Urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa and implications for malaria control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 118–127. [Google Scholar]
  46. Robert V, Macintyre K, Keating J, Trape JF, Duchemin JB, Warren M, Beier JC, 2003. Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 169–176. [Google Scholar]
  47. Beier JC, Oster CN, Onyango FK, Bales JD, Sherwood JA, Perkins PV, Chumo DK, Koech DV, Whitmire RE, Roberts CR, 1994. Plasmodium falciparum incidence relative to entomologic inoculation rates at a site proposed for testing malaria vaccines in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50: 529–536. [Google Scholar]
  48. Charlwood JD, Smith T, Lyimo E, Kitua A, Masanja H, Booth M, Alonso PL, Tanner M, 1998. Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in infants in relation to exposure to sporozoite-infected anophelines. Am J Trop Med Hyg 9: 243–251. [Google Scholar]
  49. Smith T, Charlwood JD, Kitua A, Masanja H, Mwankusye S, Alonso PL, Tanner M, 1998. Relationships of malaria morbidity with exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in young children in a highly endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 252–257. [Google Scholar]
  50. Alles HK, Mendis KN, Carter R, 1998. Malaria mortality rates in south Asia and in Africa: Implications for malaria control. Parasitol Today 14: 369–375. [Google Scholar]
  51. McElroy PD, Beier JC, Oster CN, Beadle C, Sherwood JA, Oloo AJ, Hoffman SL, 1994. Predicting outcome in malaria: correlation between rate of exposure to infected mosquitoes and level of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 523–532. [Google Scholar]
  52. Gu W, Mbogo CM, Githure JI, Regens JL, Killeen G, Swalm CM, Yan G, Beier JC, 2003. Low recovery rates stabilize malaria endemicity in areas of low transmission in coastal Kenya. Acta Trop 86: 71–81. [Google Scholar]
  53. Drakeley CJ, Mulder L, Tchuinkam T, Gupta S, Sauerwein R, Targett G, 1998. Transmission-blocking effects of sera from malaria-exposed individuals on Plasmodium falciparum isolates from gametocyte carriers. Parasitology 116: 417–423. [Google Scholar]
  54. Mulder B, Tchuinkam T, Dechering K, Verhave JP, Carnevale P, Meuwissen JH, Robert V, 1994. Malaria transmission-blocking activity in experimental infections of Anopheles gambiae from naturally infected Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88: 121–125. [Google Scholar]
  55. Mulder B, Tchuinkam T, Verhave JP, Robert V, 1993. Malaria transmission-blocking activity in the plasma of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers in Cameroon. Parassitologia 35 (Suppl): 65–67. [Google Scholar]
  56. Boudin C, Van Der KM, Tchuinkam T, Gouagna C, Bonnet S, Safeukui I, Mulder B, Meunier JY, Verhave JP, 2004. Plasmodium falciparum transmission blocking immunity under conditions of low and high endemicity in Cameroon. Parasite Immunol 26: 105–110. [Google Scholar]
  57. Carnevale P, Frezil JL, Bosseno MF, Lepont F, Lancien J, 1978. Study of agressivity of Anopheles gambiae A in relation to age and sex of human subjects. Bull World Health Organ 56: 147–154. [Google Scholar]
  58. Kouznetsov RL, 1977. Malaria control by application of indoor spraying of residual insecticides in tropical Africa and its impact on community health. Trop Doct 7: 81–91. [Google Scholar]
  59. Ijumba JN, Mosha FW, Lindsay SW, 2002. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 16: 28–38. [Google Scholar]
  60. Garrett-Jones C, Shidrawi GR, 1969. Malaria vectorial capacity of a population of Anopheles gambiae: an exercise in epidemiological entomology. Bull World Health Organ 40: 531–545. [Google Scholar]
  61. Smith T, Charlwood JD, Kihonda J, Mwankusye S, Billingsley P, Meuwissen J, Lyimo E, Takken W, Teuscher T, Tanner M, 1993. Absence of seasonal variation in malaria parasitaemia in an area of intense seasonal transmission. Acta Trop 54: 55–72. [Google Scholar]
  62. Charlwood JD, Smith T, Kihonda J, Heiz B, Billingsley PF, Takken W, 1995. Density-independent feeding success of malaria vectors (Diptera, Culicidae) in Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 85: 29–35. [Google Scholar]
  63. Robert V, Dieng H, Lochouarn L, Traore SF, Trape JF, Simondon F, Fontenille D, 1998. Malaria transmission in the rural zone of Niakhar, Senegal. Trop Med Int Health 3: 667–677. [Google Scholar]
  64. Cattani J, Tulloch J, Vrbova H, Jolley D, Gibson FD, Moir JS, Heywood PF, Alpers MP, Stevenson A, Clancy R, 1986. The epidemiology of malaria in a population surrounding Madang, Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 3–15. [Google Scholar]
  65. Burkot TR, Graves PM, Paru R, Wirtz RA, Heywood PF, 1988. Human malaria transmission studies in the Anopheles punctulatus complex in Papua New Guinea: sporozoite rates, inoculation rates, and sporozoite densities. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39: 135–144. [Google Scholar]
  66. Charlwood JD, Birley MH, Dagoro H, Paru R, Holmes PR, 1985. Assessing survival rates of Anopheles farauti (Diptera, Culicidae) from Papua New Guinea. J Anim Ecol 54: 1003–1016. [Google Scholar]
  67. Charlwood JD, Graves PM, 1987. The effect of permethrin-impregnated bednets on a population of Anopheles farauti in coastal Papua New Guinea. Med Vet Entomol 1: 319–327. [Google Scholar]
  68. Elissa N, Karch S, Bureau P, Ollomo B, Lawoko M, Yangari P, Ebang B, Georges AJ, 1999. Malaria transmission in a region of savanna-forest mosaic, Haut-Ogooue, Gabon. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15: 15–23. [Google Scholar]
  69. Robert V, Carnevale P, Ouedraogo V, Petrarca V, Coluzzi M, 1988. Transmission of human malaria in a savanna village of South-West Burkina Faso. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 68: 107–121. [Google Scholar]
  70. Lengeler C, Killeen GK, Tami A, Schellenberg JRM, 2005. A spatial anaylsis of the impact of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in Tanzania. Final report to the Swiss National Science Foundation, Bern, Switzerland.
  71. Smith T, Charlwood JD, Takken W, Tanner M, Spiegelhalter DJ, 1995. Mapping the densities of malaria vectors within a single village. Acta Trop 59: 1–18. [Google Scholar]
  72. Robert V, Gazin P, Boudin C, Molez JF, Ouedraogo V, Carnevale P, 1985. The transmission of malaria in a wooded savannah area and a rice-growing area around Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 65 (Suppl 2): 201–214. [Google Scholar]
  73. Klinkenberg E, Takken W, Huibers F, Toure Y, 2003. The phenology of malaria mosquitoes in irrigated rice fields in Mali. Acta Trop 85: 71–82. [Google Scholar]
  74. Dolo G, Briet O, Dao A, Traore SF, Bouare M, Sogoba N, Niare O, Bagayogo M, Sangare D, Teuscher T, Toure Y, 2004. Malaria transmission in relation to rice cultivation in the irrigated Sahel of Mali. Acta Trop 89: 147–159. [Google Scholar]
  75. Robert V, Carnevale P, 1991. Influence of deltamethrin treatment of bed nets on malaria transmission in the Kou valley, Burkina Faso. Bull World Health Organ 69: 735–740. [Google Scholar]
  76. Bonnet S, Gouagna C, Safeukui I, Meunier JY, Boudin C, 2000. Comparison of artificial membrane feeding with direct skin feeding to estimate infectiousness of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers to mosquitoes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 103–106. [Google Scholar]
  77. Magesa SM, Wilkes TJ, Mnzava AE, Njunwa KJ, Myamba J, Kivuyo MD, Hill N, Lines J, Curtis CF, 1991. Trial of pyre-throid impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. Part 2. Effects on the malaria vector population. Acta Trop 49: 97–108. [Google Scholar]
  78. Thomson MC, D’Alessandro U, Bennett S, Connor SJ, Langerock P, Jawara M, Todd J, Greenwood BM, 1994. Malaria prevalence is inversely related to vector density in The Gambia, West Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88: 638–643. [Google Scholar]
  79. Quinones M, Lines J, Thomson MC, Jawara M, Greenwood BM, 1998. Permethrin-treated bed nets do not have a ‘mass-killing effect’ on village populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in The Gambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92: 373–378. [Google Scholar]
  80. Lindsay SW, Jawara M, Paine K, Pinder M, Walraven GE, Emerson PM, 2003. Changes in house design reduce exposure to malaria mosquitoes. Trop Med Int Health 8: 512–517. [Google Scholar]
  81. Lindsay SW, Alonso PL, Armstrong S Jr, Hemingway J, Adiamah JH, Shenton FC, Jawara M, Greenwood BM, 1993. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. 7. Impact of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on malaria vectors. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 (Suppl 2): 45–51. [Google Scholar]
  82. Lindsay SW, Snow R, Broomfield GL, Janneh MS, Wirtz RA, Greenwood BM, 1989. Impact of permethrin-treated bednets on malaria transmission by the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia. Med Vet Entomol 3: 263–271. [Google Scholar]
  83. Bockarie M, Service MW, Barnish G, Maude G, Greenwood BM, 1994. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. III. Vector ecology and disease transmission. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88: 251–262. [Google Scholar]
  84. Gelfand HM, 1955. Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles melas Theobald in a coastal area of Liberia, west Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 49: 508–527. [Google Scholar]
  85. Service MW, 1965. Some basic entomological factors concerned with the transmission and control of malaria in northern Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 59: 291–296. [Google Scholar]
  86. Service MW, 1963. The ecology of the mosquitos ot the northern Guinea savannah of Nigeria. Bull Entomol Res 54: 601–632. [Google Scholar]
  87. Hanney PW, 1960. The mosquitoes of Zaria province, Northern Nigeria. Bull Entomol Res 51: 145–171. [Google Scholar]
  88. Mbogo CN, Snow R, Kabiru EW, Ouma J, Githure JI, Marsh K, Beier JC, 1993. Low-level Plasmodium falciparum transmission and the incidence of severe malaria infections on the Kenyan coast. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49: 245–253. [Google Scholar]
  89. Mbogo CN, Snow R, Khamala CP, Kabiru EW, Ouma J, Githure JI, Marsh K, Beier JC, 1995. Relationships between Plasmodium falciparum transmission by vector populations and the incidence of severe disease at nine sites on the Kenyan coast. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 201–206. [Google Scholar]
  90. Mbogo CN, Glass GE, Forster D, Kabiru EW, Githure JI, Ouma J, Beier JC, 1993. Evaluation of light traps for sampling anopheline mosquitoes in Kilifi, Kenya. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9: 260–263. [Google Scholar]
  91. Mbogo CN, Baya NM, Ofulla AV, Githure JI, Snow R, 1996. The impact of permethrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors of the Kenyan coast. Med Vet Entomol 10: 251–259. [Google Scholar]
  92. Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Diatta M, Sokhna C, Dia I, Diagne N, Lemasson JJ, Ba K, Tall A, Rogier C, Trape JF, 1997. Four years’ entomological study of the transmission of seasonal malaria in Senegal and the bionomics of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 647–652. [Google Scholar]
  93. Sokhna C, Diagne N, Lochouarn L, Rogier C, Trape JF, Spiegel A, Fontenille D, 1998. Comparative evaluation of the plasmo-dial infection of Anopheles using ELISA and dissection. Consequences for the estimation of the transmission of malaria in 1995 in Ndiop, Senegal. Parasite 5: 273–279. [Google Scholar]
  94. Beier JC, Perkins PV, Koros JK, Onyango FK, Gargan TP, Wirtz RA, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1990. Malaria sporozoite detection by dissection and ELISA to assess infectivity of Afrotropical Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 27: 377–384. [Google Scholar]
  95. Service MW, Joshi GP, Pradhan GD, 1978. A survey of Anopheles gambiae (species A) and An. arabiensis (species B) of the An. gambiae Giles complex in the Kisumu area of Kenya following insecticidal spraying with OMS-43 (Fenitrothion). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 72: 377–386. [Google Scholar]
  96. Highton RB, Bryan JH, Boreham PFL, Chandler JA, 1979. Studies on the sibling species Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Kisumu Area, Kenya. Bull Entomol Res 69: 43–53. [Google Scholar]
  97. Akogbeto PM, Nahum A, 1996. Impact of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets on the transmission of malaria in the coastal lagoon area, Benin. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 89: 291–298. [Google Scholar]
  98. Cuzin-Ouattara N, Van den Broek AH, Habluetzel A, Diabate A, Sanogo-Ilboudo E, Diallo DA, Cousens SN, Esposito F, 1999. Wide-scale installation of insecticide-treated curtains confers high levels of protection against malaria transmission in a hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 473–479. [Google Scholar]
  99. Coosemans M, 1987. Recherche Epidemiologique sur le Paludisme dans la Plaine de la Rusizi et dans l’Imbo Sud (République du Burundi). Evaluation des Moyens de Lutte. Louvain, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain.
  100. Faye O, Gaye O, Faye O, Diallo S, 1994. Transmission of malaria in villages far away or situated on the border of a mangrove forest in Senegal. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 87: 157–163. [Google Scholar]
  101. Premji Z, Ndayanga P, Shiff C, Minjas J, Lubega P, MacLeod J, 1997. Community based studies on childhood mortality in a malaria holoendemic area on the Tanzanian coast. Acta Trop 63: 101–109. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 18 Sep 2005
  • Accepted : 06 Nov 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error