1921
Volume 75, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The potential relationship between and anemia was examined using data obtained by the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) before (baseline) and 1 year after (follow-up) a chemotherapeutic treatment program in Uganda. Changes in hemoglobin (Hb) levels in 2,788 children in relation to their schistosomiasis and/or hookworm infection intensity category and baseline anemia status were analyzed. At baseline, significant predictors of childhood anemia were intensities of and hookworm infection. At follow-up, moderate or heavy hookworm as well as heavy infections were important. Children heavily infected with or hookworm had significantly lower Hb counts at baseline compared with those not infected. Among anemic children at the baseline survey, a significant increase in Hb counts of 0.834 g/dL after treatment was found. Our results suggest that anemia is associated with schistosomiasis and hookworm in Ugandan children and that such anemia shows a significant improvement after chemotherapy.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.278
2006-08-01
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/75/2/0750278.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.278&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Crawley J, 2004. Reducing the burden of anemia in infants and young children in malaria-endemic countries of Africa: from evidence to action. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 25–34.
  2. Engels D, Chitsulo L, Montresor A, Savioli L, 2002. The global epidemiological situation of schistosomiasis and new approaches to control and research. Acta Trop 82 : 139–146.
  3. Coutinho HM, McGarvey ST, Acosta LP, Manalo DL, Langdon GC, Leenstra T, Kanzaria HK, Solomon J, Wu H, Olveda RM, Kurtis JD, Friedman JF, 2005. Nutritional status and serum cytokine profiles in children, adolescents, and young adults with Schistosoma japonicum-associated hepatic fibrosis, in Leyte, Philippines. J Infect Dis 192 : 528–536.
  4. Nokes C, McGarvey ST, Shiue L, Wu G, Wu H, Bundy DA, Olds GR, 1999. Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment in Schistosoma japonicum infection in chinese primary schoolchildren. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 556–565.
  5. Olsen A, Magnussen P, Ouma JH, Andreassen J, Friis H, 1998. The contribution of hookworm and other parasitic infections to haemoglobin and iron status among children and adults in western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 643–649.
  6. Stephenson LS, Holland C, 1987. The Impact of Helminth Infections on Human Nutrition. London, UK: Taylor and Frances.
  7. Stephenson LS, 1993. The impact of schistosomiasis on human nutrition. Parasitology 107 : 107–123.
  8. Preston JM, Dargie JD, 1975. Mechanisms involved in ovine schistosomal anaemia Welsh CN, ed. Nuclear Techniques in Helminthology Research. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, 121–126.
  9. Foy H, Nelson GS, 1963. Helminths in the etiology of anaemia in the tropics, with special reference to hookworms and schistosomes. Exp Parasitol 14 : 240–262.
  10. Latham MC, Stephenson LS, Hall A, Wolgemuth JC, Elliot TC, Crompton DW, 1983. Parasitic infections, anaemia and nutritional status: a study of their interrelationships and the effect of prophylaxis and treatment on workers in Kwale District, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77 : 41–48.
  11. Vennervald BJ, Dunne DW, 2004. Morbidity in Schistosomiasis: an update. Curr Opin Infect Dis 17 : 439–447.
  12. Lengeler C, Kilima P, Mshinda H, Morona D, Hatz C, Tanner M, 1991. Rapid, low-cost, two-step method to screen for urinary schistosomiasis at the district level: the Kilosa experience. Bull World Health Organ 69 : 179–189.
  13. Utzinger J, N’Goran EK, Esse Aya CM, Acka Adjoua C, Lohourignon KL, Tanner M, Lengeler C, 1998. Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and perceived morbidity indicators in schoolchildren in a rural endemic area of western Côte d’Ivoire. Trop Med Int Health 3 : 711–720.
  14. Brouwer KC, Ndhlovu PD, Wagatsuma Y, Munatsi A, Shiff CJ, 2003. Epidemiological assessment of Schistosoma haematobium-induced kidney and bladder pathology in rural Zimbabwe. Acta Trop 85 : 339–347.
  15. Richter J, 2003. The impact of chemotherapy on morbidity due to schistosomiasis. Acta Trop 86 : 161–183.
  16. Booth M, Vennervald BJ, Kabatereine NB, Kazibwe F, Ouma JH, Kariuki CH, Muchiri E, Kadzo H, Ireri E, Kimani G, Mwatha JK, Dunne DW, 2004. Hepatosplenic morbidity in two neighbouring communities in Uganda with high levels of Schistosoma mansoni infection but very different durations of residence. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 : 125–136.
  17. Kabatereine NB, Kemijumbi J, Ouma JH, Sturrock RF, Butterworth AE, Madsen H, Ornbjerg N, Dunne DW, Vennnervald BJ, 2003. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel treatment in a highly endemic Schistosoma mansoni focus at Lake Albert, Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 599–603.
  18. Kabatereine NB, Vennervald BJ, Ouma JH, Kemijumbi J, Butterworth AE, Dunne DW, Fulford AJ, 1999. Adult resistance to schistosomiasis mansoni: age dependence of reinfection remains constant in communities with diverse exposure patterns. Parasitology 118 : 101–105.
  19. Brooker S, Whawell S, Kabatereine NB, Fenwick A, Anderson RM, 2004. Evaluating the epidemiological impact of national control programmes for helminths. Trends Parasitol 20 : 537–545.
  20. Stothard JR, Kabatereine NB, Tukahebwa EM, Kazibwe F, Rollinson D, Mathieson W, Webster JP, Fenwick A, 2006. Use of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipsticks for detection of intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis. Acta Trop. 97 : 219–228.
  21. Kabatereine NB, Tukahebwa EM, Kazibwe F, Twa-Twa JM, Barenzi JF, Zaramba S, Stothard JR, Fenwick A, Brooker S, 2005. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda: epidemiology and cost of control. Trop Med Int Health 10 : 1187–1189.
  22. Parker DR, Bargiota A, Cowan FG, Corrall RJ, 1997. Suspected hypoglycaemia in out patient practice: accuracy of dried blood spot analysis. Clin Endocrinol 47 : 679–683.
  23. van der Werf MJ, de Vlas SJ, Brooker S, Looman CW, Nagelkerke NJ, Habbema JD, Engels D, 2003. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Trop 86 : 125–139.
  24. Mauny F, Viel JF, Handschumacher P, Sellin B, 2004. Multilevel modelling and malaria: a new method for an old disease. Int J Epidemiol 33 : 1337–1344.
  25. Verbeke G, Molenberghs G, 2000. Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. New York: Springer Series in Statistics.
  26. Gibson R, 1990. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
  27. Gorstein J, Sullivan K, Yip R, de Onis M, Trowbridge F, Fajans P, Clugston G, 1994. Issues in the assessment of nutrition status using anthropometry. Bull World Health Organ 72 : 273–283.
  28. World Health Organization, 1995. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser : 854.
  29. Friedman JF, Kanzaria HK, McGarvey ST, 2005. Human schistosomiasis and anaemia: (the relationship and potential mechanisms. Trends Parasitol 21 : 386–392.
  30. Kabatereine NB, Tukahebwa E, Kazibwe F, Namwangye H, Zaramba S, Brooker S, Stothard JR, Kamenka C, Whawell S, Webster JP, Fenwick A, 2006. Progress towards countrywide control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100 : 208–215.
  31. Nullis-Kapp C, 2004. Darfur overshadows “forgotten” crisis in neighbouring Uganda. Bull World Health Organ 82 : 886.
  32. Taylor M, Jinabhai CC, Couper I, Kleinschmidt I, Jogessar B, 2001. The effect of different anthelmintic treatment regimens combined with iron supplementation on the nutritional status of schoolchildren in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa: a randomized control trial. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 211–216.
  33. Stoltzfus RJ, Albonico M, Chwaya HM, Tielsch JM, Schulze KJ, Savioli L, 1998. Effects of the Zanzibar school-based deworming program on iron status of children. Am J Clin Nutr 68 : 179–186.
  34. Beasley NMR, Tomkins AM, Hall A, Kihamia CM, Lorri W, Nduma B, Issae W, Nokes C, Bundy DAP, 1999. The impact of population level deworming on the haemoglobin level of schoolchildren in Tanga, Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 4 : 744–750.
  35. Friis H, Mwaniki D, Omondi B, Muniu E, Thiong’o F, Ouma J, Magnussen P, Geissler PW, Michaelsen KF, 2003. Effects on haemoglobin of multi-micronutrient supplementation and multi-helminth chemotherapy: a randomized, control trial in Kenyan schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr 57 : 573–579.
  36. Uganda Ministry of Health, Available at http://www.health.go.ug/blood_trans.htm.
  37. Kabatereine NB, Brooker S, Tukahebwa EM, Kazibwe F, Onapa AW, 2004. Epidemiology and geography of Schistosoma mansoni in Uganda: implications for planning control. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 372–380.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.278
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.278
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 11 Nov 2005
  • Accepted : 15 Feb 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error