1921
Volume 75, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

A case is reported of a seven-year-old girl who had concurrent infections with malaria and dengue in a remote area of East Timor. The diagnosis of malaria was delayed because of two false-negative results with malaria rapid diagnosis test cards. Diagnosis was eventually made on microscopic examination of the patient’s blood. Despite treatment, the patient subsequently died. This case serves as a reminder of the fallibility of rapid diagnostic tests, and the importance of examining the patient’s blood microscopically if malaria is suspected.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.182
2006-07-01
2018-12-11
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/75/1/0750182.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.182&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2000. New Perspectives – Malaria Diagnosis. Accessed February 20, 2005. Available from http://www.who.int/tdr/publications/publications/pdf/malaria_diagnosis.pdf.
  2. World Health Organization, 1999. Guidelines for the Treatment of Dengue Fever/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Small Hospitals. Accessed February 20, 2005. Available from http://w3.whosea.org/techinfo/pdf/dengue.pdf.
  3. Bragonier R, Reyburn H, Nasveld P, Edstein M, Auliffe A, 2002. Rainy-season prevalence of malaria in Bobonaro district, East Timor. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 : 739–743. [Google Scholar]
  4. Shirtcliffe P, Cameron E, Nicholson KG, Wiselka MJ, 1998. Don’t forget dengue! Clinical features of dengue fever in returning travellers. J R Coll Physicians Lond 32 : 235–237. [Google Scholar]
  5. Talarmin A, Peneau C, Dussart P, Pfaff F, Courcier M, de Rocca-Serra B, Sarthou JL, 2000. Surveillance of dengue fever in French Guiana by monitoring the results of negative malaria diagnoses. Epidemiol Infect 125 : 189–193. [Google Scholar]
  6. Utarini A, Winkvist A, Ulfa FM, 2003. Rapid assessment procedures of malaria in low endemic countries: community perceptions in Jepara district, Indonesia. Soc Sci Med 56 : 701–712. [Google Scholar]
  7. Sung V, Brown GV, Torresi J, 2003. Dengue fever in travellers returning from southeast Asia. J Travel Med 10 : 208–213. [Google Scholar]
  8. Halstead SB, 2002. Dengue. Curr Opin Infect Dis 15 : 471–476. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gregson A, Edelman R, 2003. Dengue virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22 : 179–181. [Google Scholar]
  10. White NJ, Breman JG, 1994. Malaria and babesiosis. Isselbacher KJ, Braunwald E, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 13th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 887–895.
  11. Chakravarti A, Gur R, Berry N, Mathur MD, 2000. Evaluation of three commercially available kits for serological diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 36 : 273–274. [Google Scholar]
  12. Vajpayee M, Singh UB, Seth P, Broor S, 2001. Comparative evaluation of various commercial assays for diagnosis of dengue fever. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32 : 472–475. [Google Scholar]
  13. Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Kalayanarooj S, Solomon T, Dung NM, Cuzzubbo A, Devine PL, 1998. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of dengue virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 36 : 234–238. [Google Scholar]
  14. Sathish N, Manayani DJ, Shankar V, Abraham M, Nithyanandam G, Sridharan G, 2002. Comparison of IgM capture ELISA with a commercial rapid immunochromatographic card test and IgM microwell ELISA for the detection of antibodies to dengue viruses. Indian J Med Res 115 : 31–36. [Google Scholar]
  15. Cuzzubbo AJ, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Solomon T, Kalayanarooj S, Aaskov J, Dung NM, Devine PL, 2000. Comparison of PanBio dengue duo IgM and IgG capture ELISA and Venture Technologies dengue IgM and IgG dot blot. J Clin Virol 16 : 135–144. [Google Scholar]
  16. Parida MM, Upadhyay C, Saxena P, Dash PK, Jana AM, Seth P, 2001. Evaluation of a dipstick ELISA and a rapid immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of dengue virus infection. Acta Virol 45 : 299–304. [Google Scholar]
  17. Iqbal J, Khalid N, Hira PR, 2002. Comparison of two commercial assays with expert microscopy for confirmation of symptomatically diagnosed malaria. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 4675–4678. [Google Scholar]
  18. De Monbrison F, Gerome P, Chaulet JF, Wallon M, Picot S, Peyron F, 2004. Comparative diagnostic performance of two commercial rapid tests for malaria in a non-endemic area. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23 : 784–786. [Google Scholar]
  19. Pattanasin S, Proux S, Chompasuk D, Luwiradaj K, Jacquier P, Looareesuwan S, Nosten F, 2003. Evaluation of a new Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase assay (OptiMAL-IT) for the detection of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 672–674. [Google Scholar]
  20. Palmer CJ, King SD, Cuadrado RR, Perez E, Baum M, Ager AL, 1999. Evaluation of the MRL diagnostics dengue fever virus IgM capture ELISA and the PanBio rapid immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of dengue fever in Jamaica. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 1600–1601. [Google Scholar]
  21. Nwuba RI, Anumudu CI, Omosun YO, Sodeinde O, Nwagwu M, 2001. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic card test for Plasmodium falciparum in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med 30 : 123–124. [Google Scholar]
  22. Moody A, Hunt-Cooke A, Gabbett E, Chiodini P, 2000. Performance of the OptiMAL malaria antigen capture dipstick for malaria diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. Br J Haematol 109 : 891–894. [Google Scholar]
  23. Kolaczinski J, Mohammed N, Ali I, Ali M, Khan N, Ezard N, Rowland M, 2004. Comparison of the OptiMAL rapid antigen test with field microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum: considerations for the application of the rapid test in Afghanistan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98 : 15–20. [Google Scholar]
  24. Playford EG, Walker J, 2002. Evaluation of the ICT malaria P.f/P.v and the OptiMal rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in febrile returned travellers. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 4166–4171. [Google Scholar]
  25. Durrheim DN, la Grange JJP, Govere J, Mngomezulu NM, 1998. Accuracy of a rapid immunochromatographic card test for Plasmodium falciparum in a malaria control programme in South Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 32–33. [Google Scholar]
  26. Garcia M, Kirimoama S, Marlborough D, Leafasia J, Rieckmann KH, 1996. Immunochromatographic test for malaria diagnosis. Lancet 347 : 1549. [Google Scholar]
  27. Pieroni P, Mills CD, Ohrt C, Harrington MA, Kain KC, 1998. Comparison of the Parasight®-F test and the ICT malaria PF® test with the polymerase-chain-reaction for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in travelers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 166–169. [Google Scholar]
  28. Fernando SD, Karunaweera ND, Fernando WP, 2004. Evaluation of a rapid whole blood immunochromatographic assay for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. Ceylon Med J 49 : 7–11. [Google Scholar]
  29. Beadle C, Long GW, Weiss WR, McElroy PD, Maret SM, Oloo AJ, Hoffman SL, 1994. Diagnosis of malaria by detection of Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 antigen with a rapid dipstick antigen-capture assay. Lancet 343 : 564–568. [Google Scholar]
  30. Humar A, Ohrt C, Harrington MA, Pillai D, Kain KC, 1997. Parasight®-F test compared with the polymerase-chain-reaction and microscopy for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in travelers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56 : 44–48. [Google Scholar]
  31. Kodisinghe HM, Perera KLRL, Premawansa S, de Naotunne TS, Wickramasinghe AR, 1997. The Parasight®-F. dipstick test as a routine diagnostic tool for malaria in Sri Lanka. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 398–402. [Google Scholar]
  32. Mayxay M, Newton PN, Yeung S, Pongvongsa T, Phompida S, Phetsouvanh R, White NJ, 2004. An assessment of the use of malaria rapid tests by village health volunteers in rural Laos. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 325–329. [Google Scholar]
  33. Bualombai P, Prajakwong S, Aussawatheerakul N, Congpoung K, Sudathip S, Thimasarn K, Sirichaisinthop J, Indaratna K, Kidson C, Srisuphanand M, 2003. Determining cost-effectiveness and cost component of three malaria diagnostic models being used in remote non-microscope areas. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34 : 322–333. [Google Scholar]
  34. Huong NM, Davis TME, Hewitt S, Huong NV, Uyen TT, Nhan DH, Congle D, 2002. Comparison of three antigen detection methods for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of malaria: a field study from southern Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 304–308. [Google Scholar]
  35. Murray CK, Bell D, Gasser RA, Wongsrichanalai C, 2003. Rapid diagnostic testing for malaria. Trop Med Int Health 8 : 876–883. [Google Scholar]
  36. Hänscheid T, 1999. Diagnosis of malaria: a review of alternatives to conventional microscopy. Clin Lab Haematol 21 : 235–245. [Google Scholar]
  37. Marx A, Pewsner D, Egger M, Nüesch R, Bucher HC, Genton B, Hatz C, Jüni P, 2005. Meta-analysis: accuracy of rapid tests for malaria in travelers returning from endemic areas. Ann Intern Med 142 : 836–846. [Google Scholar]
  38. Zakai HA, 2003. Methods used in the diagnosis of malaria: where do we stand? J Egypt Soc Parasitol 33 : 979–990. [Google Scholar]
  39. Craig MH, Sharp BL, 1997. Comparative evaluation of four techniques for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 279–282. [Google Scholar]
  40. Di Perri G, Olliario P, Nardi S, Allegranzi B, Deganello R, Vento S, Lanzafame M, Cazzadori A, Bonora S, Concia E, 1997. The Parasight®-F rapid dipstick antigen capture assay for monitoring parasite clearance after drug treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 403–405. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.182
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.182
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Mar 2006
  • Accepted : 20 Mar 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error