1921
Volume 75, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Egyptian children with infected parents are at high risk of infection with hepatitis C (HCV). Analysis of data collected during surveys of rural communities show children whose parents had antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) were at higher risk for having anti-HCV than children whose parents did not. The association was greater with mothers than fathers and when the parent had HCV RNA. For instance, 87 (14%) of 612 children had anti-HCV whose mothers had HCV RNA compared with 28 (7%) of 401 whose mothers only had anti-HCV and 79 (2.6%) of 3,086 whose mothers were seronegative. These associations persisted after controlling for age, parenteral exposures, and serologic status of the other parent. Sequencing isolates from 13 families with parent(s) and children having HCV RNA showed 10 of 18 had genetically similar viruses. These findings suggest Egyptian children are at high risk of being infected with HCV by their parents and identification of the transmission routes would allow for preventive measures.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.16
2006-07-01
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/75/1/0750016.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.16&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Darwish M, Faris R, Darwish N, Shouman A, Gadallah M, El-Sharkaway MS, Edelman R, Grumbach K, Rao MR, Clemens JD, 2001. Hepatitis C and cirrhotic liver disease in the Nile Delta of Egypt: A community study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 147–153.
  2. Abdel-Aziz F, Habib M, Mohamed MK, Magder LS, Abdel-Hamid M, Gamil F, Madkour S, Mikhail NN, Anwar W, Strickland GT, Fix AD, Sallam I, 2000. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a community in the Nile Delta: population description and HCV prevalence. Hepatology 32 : 111–115.
  3. Nafeh MA, Medhat A, Shehata M, Mikhail NN, Swifee Y, Abdel-Hamid M, Watts S, Fix AD, Strickland GT, Anwar W, Sallam I, 2000. Hepatitis C in a community in Upper Egypt: 1. cross-sectional survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 : 236–241.
  4. Arthur R, Hassan N, Abdallah M, El-Sharkawy MS, Saad MD, Hackbart BG, Imam IZ, 1997. Hepatitis C antibody prevalence in blood donors in different governorates in Egypt. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 271–274.
  5. Rao MR, Naficy AB, Darwish MA, Darwish NM, Schisterman E, Clemens JD, Edelman R, 2002. Further evidence for association of hepatitis C infection with parenteral schistosomiasis treatment in Egypt. BMC Infect Dis 2 : 29.
  6. Frank C, Mohamed MK, Strickland GT, Lavanchy D, Arthur RR, Magder LS, El-Khoby T, Abdel-Wahab Y, Aly Ohn ES, Anwar W, Sallam I, 2000. The role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy in the spread of hepatitis C virus in Egypt. Lancet 355 : 887–891.
  7. Medhat A, Fix A, Shehata M, Mikhail N, Abdel-Baki L, Nafeh M, Abdel-Hamid M, Strickland GT, Fix AD, 2002. Hepatitis C in a community in Upper Egypt: risk factors for infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 633–638.
  8. Habib M, Mohamed M, Abdel-Aziz F, Magder LS, Abdel-Hamid M, Gamil F, Madkour S, Mikhail NN, Anwar W, Strickland GT, Fix AD, Sallam I, 2001. Hepatitis C virus infection in a community in the Nile Delta: risk factors for seropositivity. Hepatology 33 : 248–253.
  9. Arafa N, El Hoseiny M, Rekacewicz C, Bakr I, El-Kafrawy S, Daly ME, Aoun S, Marzouk D, Mohamed MK, Fontanet A, 2005. Changing pattern of HCV spread in rural areas of Egypt. J Hepatol 43 : 418–424.
  10. Mohamed M, Abdel-Hamid M, Mikhail N, Abdel-Aziz F, Medhat A, Magder LS, Fix AD, Strickland GT, 2005. Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C in Egypt. Hepatology 42 : 683–687.
  11. Abdel-Hamid M, Edelman DC, Highsmith WE, Constantine NT, 1997. Optimization, assessment, and proposed use of a direct nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocol for the detection of hepatitis C virus. J Hum Virol 1 : 58–65.
  12. Okamoto H, Okada S, Sugiyama Y, 1990. The 5′-terminal sequence of the hepatitis C virus genome. Jpn J Exp Med 60 : 167–177.
  13. Delarocque-Astagneau E, Baffoy N, Thiers V, Simon N, de Valk H, Laperche S, Courouce AM, Astagneau P, Buisson C, Desenclos JC, 2002. Outbreak of hepatitis C virus infection in a hemodialysis unit: potential transmission by the hemodialysis machine? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 23 : 328–334.
  14. Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M, 2004. MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5 : 150–163.
  15. Zeger S, Liang K, 1986. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics 42 : 121–130.
  16. 1996. Proc Genmod. Cary NC: SAS Institute.
  17. Tajiri H, Miyoshi Y, Funada S, Etani Y, Abe J, Onodera T, Goto M, Funato M, Ida S, Noda C, Nakayama M, Okada S, 2001. Prospective study of mother-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J 20 : 10–14.
  18. Resti M, Azzari C, Mannellii F, Moriondo M, Novembre E, de Martino M, Vierucci A, 1998. Mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus: prospective study of risk factors and timing of infection in children born to women seronegative for HIV-1. Tuscany Study Group on Hepatitis C Virus Infection. BMJ 317 : 437–441.
  19. Dal Molin G, D Agaro P, Anasaldi F, Ciana G, Fertz C, Alberico S, Campello C, 2002. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus: rate of infection and assessment of viral load and IgM anti-HCV as risk factors. J Med Virol 67 : 137–142.
  20. Ferrero S, Lungaro P, Bruzzone BM, Gotta C, Bentivoglio G, Ragni N, 2003. Prospective study of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus: a ten year survey (1990–2000). Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 82 : 229–234.
  21. Kim YS, Chi HS, Ahn YO, Lee HS, Klag MJ, 1998. Lack of familial clustering of hepatitis C virus infection. Int J Epidemiol 27 : 525–529.
  22. Napoli N, Fiore G, Vella F, Fera G, Schiraldi O, 1993. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus among family members of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Epidemiol 9 : 629–632.
  23. Sagnelli E, Gaeta GB, Felaco FM, Stroffolini T, Conti S, Glielmo A, Piccinino F, Giusti G, 1997. Hepatitis C virus infection in households of anti- HCV chronic carriers in Italy: a multicentre case-control study. Infection 25 : 346–349.
  24. Petrarulo F, Maggi P, Sacchetti A, Pallotta G, Dagostino F, Basile C, 1992. HCV infection occupational hazard at dialysis units and virus spread, among relatives of dialyzed patients. Nephron 61 : 302–303.
  25. Demelia L, Vallebona E, Poma R, Sanna G, Masia G, Coppola RC, 1996. HCV transmissions in family members of subjects with HCV related chronic liver disease. Eur J Epidemiol 12 : 45–50.
  26. Kumar RM, 1998. Interspousal and intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C virus: a myth or a concern. Obstet Gynecol 91 : 426–431.
  27. Arif M, al-Swayeh M, al-Faleh FZ, Ramia S, 1996. Risk of hepatitis C virus infection among household contacts of Saudi patients with chronic liver disease. J Viral Hepat 3 : 97–101.
  28. Mastromatteo AM, Rapaccini GL, Pompili M, Ursino S, Romano-Spica V, Gasbarrini G, Vanini G, 2001. Hepatitis C virus infection: other biological fluids than blood may be responsible for intrafamilial spread. Hepatogastroenterology 48 : 193–196.
  29. Fabris P, Infantolino D, Biasin MR, Marchelle G, Venza E, Terribile Wiel Marin V, Benedetti P, Tositti G, Manfrin V, de Lalla F, 1999. High prevalence of HCV-RNA in the saliva cell fraction of patients with chronic hepatitis C but no evidence of HCV transmission among sexual partners. Infection 27 : 86–91.
  30. Hermida M, Ferreiro MC, Barral S, Laredo R, Castro A, Diz Dios P, 2002. Detection of HCV RNA in saliva of patients with hepatitis C virus infection by using a highly sensitive test. J Virol Methods 101 : 29–35.
  31. Ackerman Z, Paltiel O, Gilkberg F, Ackerman E, 1998. Hepatitis C virus in various human body fluids: a systematic review. Hepatol Res 11 : 26–40.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.16
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.16
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 31 Jan 2006
  • Accepted : 22 Mar 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error