Volume 75, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A retrospective surveillance study was conducted to examine the micro-geographic variation of malaria incidence in three malaria-endemic communities in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. The annual malaria risk rate (per 100) ranged from 38% to 47% for and from 15% to 18% for . Spatial clusters were found for in Padre Cocha, Manacamiri, and Zungaro Cocha, and for only in Padre Cocha. Spatial-temporal clusters showed that the highest monthly number of cases varied every year from December to March in 1996–1997 and from February to June in 1998–1999, and for from November to April in 1996–1997 and from January to April in 1998–1999. Our results suggest a constant presence of high-risk areas (hot spots) for malaria infection in periods with high or low malaria incidence. Modest targeted control efforts directed at identified high-risk areas may have significant impact on malaria transmission in this region.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Beck LR, Rodriguez MH, Dister SW, Rodriguez AD, Rejmankova E, Ulloa A, Meza RA, Roberts DR, Paris JF, Spanner MA, 1994. Remote sensing as a landscape epidemiologic tool to identify villages at high risk for malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 271–280.
  2. Hightower AW, Ombok M, Otieno R, Odhiambo R, Oloo AJ, Lal AA, Nahlen BL, Hawley WA, 1998. A geographic information system applied to a malaria field study in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 266–272.
  3. Hay SI, Omumbo JA, Craig MH, Snow RW, 2000. Earth observation, geographic information system and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Adv Parasitol 47 : 173–215.
  4. Booman M, Durrheim DN, La Grange K, Martin C, Mabuza AM, Zitha A, Mbokazi FM, Fraser C, Sharp BL, 2000. Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 1438–1444.
  5. Martin C, Curtis B, Fraser C, Sharp BL, 2002. The use of a GIS-based malaria information system for malaria research and control in South America. Health Place 8 : 227–236.
  6. Tanser FC, Le Sueur D, 2002. The application of geographical information systems to important public health problems in Africa. Int J Health Geogr 1 : 4.
  7. Gatrell AC, Bailey TC, 1996. Interactive spatial data analysis in medical geography. Soc Sci Med 42 : 843–855.
  8. Lawson AB, Denison DG, 2002. Spatial Cluster Modelling. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC Press. Chapter 14: 235–258.
  9. Cockings S, Dunn CE, Bhopal RS, Walker DR, 2004. Users’ perspectives on epidemiological, GIS and point pattern approaches to analyzing environment and health data. Health Place 10 : 169–182.
  10. Waller LA, Jacquez GM, 1995. Disease models implicit in statistical tests of disease clustering. Epidemiology 6 : 584–590.
  11. Anderson RM, May RM, 1992. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 19–21.
  12. Chadee DD, Kitron U, 1999. Spatial and temporal patterns of imported malaria cases and local transmission in Trinidad. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 513–517.
  13. Ministerio de Salud, 1998. Boletín de Malaria 1997–1998. Iquitos, Peru: Ministerio de Salud, Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto
  14. Fernandez R, Carbajal F, Quintana J, Chauca H, Watts DM, 1996. Presencia del A. (N) darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae), en alrededores de la ciudad de Iquitos Loreto-Perú. Bol SPEIT 5 : 10–13.
  15. Aramburu J, Ramal C, Witzig R, 1999. Malaria reemergence in the Peruvian Amazon region. Emerg Infect Dis 5 : 209–215.
  16. Roper MH, Carrion Torres RB, Cava Goicochea CG, Andersen EM, Aramburu Guarda JS, Calampa C, Hightower AW, Magill AJ, 2000. The epidemiology of malaria in an epidemic area of the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 247–256.
  17. Herring TA, 1999. The global positioning system. Sci Am 44–50.
  18. Hjalmars U, Kulldorff M, Gustafsson G, Nagarwalla N, 1996. Childhood leukaemia in Sweden: using GIS and a spatial scan statistic for cluster detection. Stat Med 15 : 707–715.
  19. Kulldorff M, 1997. A spatial scan statistic. Communications Stat Theor Methods 27 : 1481–1496.
  20. Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM, 1989. An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 249–277.
  21. Gagnon AS, Smoyer-Tomic KE, Bush AB, 2002. The El Nino southern oscillation and malaria epidemics in South America. Int J Biometeorol 46 : 81–89.
  22. Guthmann JP, Llanos-Cuentas A, Palacios A, Hall AJ, 2002. Environmental factors as determinants of malaria risk. A descriptive study on the northern coast of Peru. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 518–525.
  23. Klinkenberg E, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe FP, 2004. A malaria risk analysis in an irrigated area in Sri Lanka. Acta Trop 2 : 215–225.
  24. Rozendaal AJ, 1992. Relations between Anopheles darlingi breeding habitats, rainfall, river level and malaria transmission rates in the rain forest of Suriname. Med Vet Entomol 6 : 16–22.
  25. Srivastava A, Nagpal BN, Saxena R, Eapen A, Ravindran KJ, Subbarao SK, 2003. GIS based malaria information management system for urban malaria scheme in India. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 71 : 63–75.
  26. Rakotomanana F, Jeanne I, Duchemin JB, Pietra V, Raharimalala L, Tombo ML, Ariey F, 2001. Geographic approach in malaria control in the central highlands of Madagascar. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar 67 : 27–30.
  27. Romi R, Razaiarimanga MC, Raharimanga R, Rakotondraibe EM, Ranaivo LH, Pietra V, Raveloson A, Majori G, 2002. Impact of the malaria control campaign (1993–1998) in the highlands of Madagascar: parasitological and entomological data. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 2–6.
  28. Sithiprasasna R, Linthicum KJ, Liu GJ, Jones JW, Singhasivanon P, 2003. Use of GIS-based spatial modeling approach to characterize the spatial patterns of malaria mosquito vector breeding habitats in northwestern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34 : 517–528.
  29. Greenwood BM, 1989. The microepidemiology of malaria and its importance to malaria control. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83 (Suppl): 25–29.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Apr 2006
  • Accepted : 04 Aug 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error